Semnopithecus ajax

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Semnopithecus ajax
Species Authority: (Pocock, 1928)
Common Name(s):
English Kashmir Gray Langur, Himalayan Grey Langur, Himalayan Gray Langur, Dark-eyed Himalayan Langur, Chamba Sacred Langur, Western Himalayan Langur
Synonym(s):
Semnopithecus entellus (Pocock, 1928) subspecies ajax
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of Semnopithecus entellus (Molur et al. 2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Groves, C.P. & Molur, S.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
The species is listed as Endangered as it is restricted in its range with an extent of occurrence of less than 5,000 km2 and an area of occupancy of less than 500 km2, being to a valley surrounded by high peaks in Chamba which is affected by human activities causing a continuing decline in habitat quality. The population is very small, estimated to be less than 250 mature individuals.
History:
2004 Critically Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is reported as occurring in northwestern India in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir (Groves 2001). It is claimed by Brandon-Jones (2004) that this species occurs in Melemchi, Nepal. Concrete evidence indicates its occurrence only in Chamba Valley in Himachal Pradesh (C. Groves pers. comm.). The species range is very restricted (<5,000 km2), and therefore also its area of occupancy (<500 km2).
Countries:
Native:
India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu-Kashmir)
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Molur et al. (2003) estimated a total population of this species of less than 500 individuals (250 mature). The valley where it lives is surrounded by snow peaks and therefore it has remained isolated from other langurs, and the population is very small (M. Singh and C. Groves pers. comm.). Decline in the past is not known but it is predicted to decline by less than 10% in the next 10 years (Molur et al. 2003).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in pine, moist temperate and alpine cedar forest from 2,200 to 4,000 m. It is folivorous, diurnal, and mainly terrestrial (Molur et al. 2003).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Molur et al. (2003) list the following past threats: overgrazing, building roads through forests, logging, deforestation, agriculture, and fire. Present and future threats include agriculture and development (Molur et al. 2003).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix I, and Schedule II Part I, of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 amended up to 2002 (Molur et al. 2003). Its occurrence in protected areas is difficult to determine owing to taxonomic uncertainty. The following areas are in need of research: taxonomy, life history, survey studies, limiting factor research, behavioral ecology. The following management actions for the conservation of this species are needed: wild population management, monitoring, public education, and limiting factor management (Molur et al. 2003).

Bibliography [top]

Brandon-Jones, D. 2004. A taxonomic revision of the langurs and leaf monkeys (primates: Colobinae) of South Asia. Zoos’ Print Journal 19(8): 1552–1594.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Molur, S., Brandon-Jones, D., Dittus, W., Eudey, A., Kumar, A., Singh, M., Feeroz, M. M., Chalise, M., Priya, P. and Walker, S. 2003. Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Managment Plan Report. Workshop Report, 2003. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.


Citation: Groves, C.P. & Molur, S. 2008. Semnopithecus ajax. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 July 2014.
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