Semnopithecus ajax 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Semnopithecus ajax
Species Authority: (Pocock, 1928)
Common Name(s):
English Kashmir Gray Langur, Himalayan Gray Langur, Dark-eyed Himalayan Langur, Chamba Sacred Langur, Western Himalayan Langur
Synonym(s):
Semnopithecus entellus (Pocock, 1928) ssp. ajax
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of Semnopithecus entellus (Molur et al. 2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Groves, C.P. & Molur, S.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
The species is listed as Endangered as it is restricted in its range with an extent of occurrence of less than 5,000 km2 and an area of occupancy of less than 500 km2, being to a valley surrounded by high peaks in Chamba which is affected by human activities causing a continuing decline in habitat quality. The population is very small, estimated to be less than 250 mature individuals.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is reported as occurring in northwestern India in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir (Groves 2001). It is claimed by Brandon-Jones (2004) that this species occurs in Melemchi, Nepal. Concrete evidence indicates its occurrence only in Chamba Valley in Himachal Pradesh (C. Groves pers. comm.). The species range is very restricted (<5,000 km2), and therefore also its area of occupancy (<500 km2).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu-Kashmir)
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):2200
Upper elevation limit (metres):4000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Molur et al. (2003) estimated a total population of this species of less than 500 individuals (250 mature). The valley where it lives is surrounded by snow peaks and therefore it has remained isolated from other langurs, and the population is very small (M. Singh and C. Groves pers. comm.). Decline in the past is not known but it is predicted to decline by less than 10% in the next 10 years (Molur et al. 2003).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in pine, moist temperate and alpine cedar forest from 2,200 to 4,000 m. It is folivorous, diurnal, and mainly terrestrial (Molur et al. 2003).
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Molur et al. (2003) list the following past threats: overgrazing, building roads through forests, logging, deforestation, agriculture, and fire. Present and future threats include agriculture and development (Molur et al. 2003).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix I, and Schedule II Part I, of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 amended up to 2002 (Molur et al. 2003). Its occurrence in protected areas is difficult to determine owing to taxonomic uncertainty. The following areas are in need of research: taxonomy, life history, survey studies, limiting factor research, behavioral ecology. The following management actions for the conservation of this species are needed: wild population management, monitoring, public education, and limiting factor management (Molur et al. 2003).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Brandon-Jones, D. 2004. A taxonomic revision of the langurs and leaf monkeys (primates: Colobinae) of South Asia. Zoos’ Print Journal 19(8): 1552–1594.

Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Molur, S., Brandon-Jones, D., Dittus, W., Eudey, A., Kumar, A., Singh, M., Feeroz, M. M., Chalise, M., Priya, P. and Walker, S. 2003. Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Managment Plan Report. Workshop Report, 2003. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.


Citation: Groves, C.P. & Molur, S. 2008. Semnopithecus ajax. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39833A10274370. . Downloaded on 27 September 2016.
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