Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Fabales Leguminosae

Scientific Name: Caesalpinia kavaiensis
Species Authority: H.Mann

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2003
Date Assessed: 2003-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V.
Reviewer(s): Maunder, M. (Plant Conservation Committee) & Pollock, C.M. (Red List Programme Office)
Caesalpinia kavaiensis is endemic to the islands of Hawaii and Oahu. Eight subpopulations are known, totaling 60 individuals, however, many of these are senescent and probably are non-reproductive. Threats include pigs, cattle, deer, goats, introduced plants, rats, fire, volcanic eruptions, sheep, black twig borer and collection by humans.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Endangered (E)
1998 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Restricted to populations found in the Waianae Mts. on Oahu, Hualalai on Hawaii and on Lanai. Subpopulations on Maui and Kauai are now apparently extinct.
Countries occurrence:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Currently fewer than 50 reproductive individuals are known.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Dry and moist forest.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Various factors have contributed to the decline, from overexploitation and habitat clearance to damage caused by feral animals and invasive plants.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed by the US Endangered Species Act.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Rare plant database. Unpublished.

Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer, S. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer S. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 91: 1-1918.

Citation: Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V. 2003. Caesalpinia kavaiensis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2003: e.T33606A9795704. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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