Clermontia peleana 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Campanulales Campanulaceae

Scientific Name: Clermontia peleana
Species Authority: Rock
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at: http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(i); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-05-02
Assessor(s): Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L., Weisenberger, L., Keir, M. & Yoshioka, J.M.
Reviewer(s): Chau, M.
Contributor(s): Chau, M., Gon, S.M., Kwon, J., Sporck-Koehler, M. & Sugii, N.
Justification:
Clermontia peleana is assessed as Critically Endangered. The taxon is endemic to the island of Hawaiʻi and Maui. It is now only known from Hawaiʻi Island and has an extent of occurrence of 6 km². It has experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals. Its area of occupancy is 6 km² and declining. Its distribution is severely limited, occurring in only three subpopulations. This qualifies the taxon for a ranking of Critically Endangered under criteria B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(i); D.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to the Hawaiian islands, between 530 and 1,150 m elevation on the islands of Maui and Hawaiʻi. Currently only known from Hawaiʻi Island.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:6Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:6
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):530
Upper elevation limit (metres):1150
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The taxon is extremely rare, with a total known population of 12 individuals in three subpopulations on the island of Hawaiʻi.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:12Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:3Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The taxon is an epiphytic shrub or small tree found in Hawaiian wet forest.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to this taxon include direct competition by invasive non-native plant species, and predation and habitat degradation by non-native animals, particularly pigs and goats, which degrade the habitat and harm the plants through predation, trampling, and rooting for food. Alien plants also threaten the species by altering its habitat and competing with it for moisture, nutrients, light, and space. Rats pose a threat to the species through predation of its plant parts and fruits; and introduced slugs and snails threaten the species by feeding on its leaves, stems, and seedlings. Since the species is epiphytic, it is threatened by wind and falling tree branches.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The taxon is on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. None of the subpopulations occur in a protected conservation area, but it is managed and monitored by the Hawaiʻi State Plant Extinction Prevention Program. Ex situ cultivation and propagule storage is ongoing. Outplantings have occurred, but have not yet produced viable offspring. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, population size, distribution, and trends; population genetics, and threats.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):0
  Invasive species control or prevention:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:Unknown
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Sus domesticus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Capra hircus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.

Plant Extinction Prevention Program. Submitted. Plant Extinction Prevention Program annual report, fiscal year 2014 (July 1, 2013-June 30, 2014).

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Recovery plan for the Big Island plant cluster. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Rare plant database. Unpublished.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife (USFWS). 2015. Clermontia peleana ('oha wai) 5-Year Review and Summary.

Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer, S. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer S. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 91: 1-1918.


Citation: Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L., Weisenberger, L., Keir, M. & Yoshioka, J.M. 2016. Clermontia peleana. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T30767A83789783. . Downloaded on 28 September 2016.
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