Tolypeutes matacus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cingulata Chlamyphoridae

Scientific Name: Tolypeutes matacus (Desmarest, 1804)
Common Name(s):
English Southern Three-banded Armadillo
Spanish Corechi, Mataco Bola, Quirquincho Bola, Tatú Bolita

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2013-10-03
Assessor(s): Noss, A., Superina, M. & Abba, A.M.
Reviewer(s): Loughry, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Superina, M.
Tolypeutes matacus is listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (albeit at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because of widespread habitat loss through much of its range, and because of exploitation for food, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable under criterion A2cd.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Tolypeutes matacus is found from eastern Bolivia and south-western Brazil, south through the Gran Chaco of Paraguay, to Argentina (San Luis province). The species was once present in southern Buenos Aires Province (Yepes 1928) but recent surveys suggest that it is now extinct in this area (Abba and Vizcaíno 2008, 2011; Abba et al. 2012). The reason for its disappearance from Buenos Aires is unknown, but may be related to climate. It ranges from sea level up to 800 m Asl (Argentina).
Countries occurrence:
Argentina (Catamarca, Chaco, Córdoba, Formosa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Fé, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán); Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul); Paraguay
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Tolypeutes matacus is common in most xeric parts of the Paraguayan Chaco (Redford and Eisenberg 1992, Meritt 2008). It was recorded at densities of 1.9 animals per km² in the Bolivian Chaco (Cuéllar 2002). The wild population is decreasing, mainly due to intense hunting and habitat loss.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This armadillo, which can roll into a ball when threatened, is found in areas of dry vegetation within the Chaco (Bolkovic et al. 1995). It usually does not dig burrows but rather uses abandoned burrows of other species or hides in dense vegetation. It has a slow reproductive rate; the females give birth to a single young per litter and per year.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This armadillo is hunted for food and used as a pet species, both within its range and in other countries. It is also used to make handicrafts.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Tolypeutes matacus is threatened by hunting for food; as it is not fossorial, it is easier to hunt than other armadillo species. It is also threatened by habitat destruction through conversion of suitable habitat to cultivated land; however, it is able to adapt to low levels of agricultural disturbance. This species is exported to zoos and for pet trade, and there is a high mortality of individuals during this export process.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Tolypeutes matacus has been recorded from a number of protected areas. There is a captive population in North American zoos.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.3. Harvest & Trade Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.3. Trade trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Handicrafts, jewellery, etc.
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Abba, A.M. and Vizcaíno, S.F. 2008. Los xenartros (Mammalia: Xenarthra) del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales 'Bernardino Rivadavia' y el Museo de La Plata. Contribuciones del MACN 4: 1-37.

Abba, A.M. and Vizcaíno, S.F. 2011. Distribución de los armadillos (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mastozoología Neotropical 18: 185-206.

Abba, A.M., Tognelli, M.F., Seitz, V.P., Bender, J.B. and Vizcaíno, S.F. 2012. Distribution of extant xenarthrans (Mammalia: Xenarthra) in Argentina using species distribution models. Mammalia 76: 123-136.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Bolkovic, M. L., S. M. Caziani, and J. J. Protomastro. 1995. Food habits of the three-banded armadillo (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) in the dry Chaco, Argentina. Journal of Mammalogy 76: 1199-1204.

Cuellar, E. 2002. Census of the three-banded armadillo Tolypeutes matacus using dogs, southern Chaco, Bolivia. Mammalia 66: 448-451.

Cuéllar, E. 2008. Biology and ecology of armadillos in the Bolivian Chaco. In: S.F. Vizcaíno and W.J. Loughry (eds), The Biology of the Xenarthra, pp. 306-312. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Gardner, A.L. 1993. Order Xenarthra. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Second Edition, pp. 63-68. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Gardner, A.L. 2005. Order Cingulata. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition., pp. 94-99. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Meritt Jr., D.A. 2008. Xenarthrans of the Paraguayan Chaco. In: S.F. Vizcaino and W.J. Loughry (eds), The Biology of the Xenarthra, pp. 294-299. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Noss, A., Cuéllar, E., Gómez, H., Tarifa, T. and Aliaga-Rossel, E. 2010. Dasypodidae. In: R.B. Wallace, H. Gómez, Z.R. Porcel and D.I. Rumiz (eds), Distribución, ecología y conservación de los mamíferos medianos y grandes de Bolivia, pp. 173-212. Centro de Ecología Difusión Simón I. Patiño, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.

Noss, A.J. 2013. Seguimiento del corechi (Tolypeutes matacus) por medio de carreteles de hilo en el Chaco boliviano. Edentata 14: 15-22.

Redford, K.H. and Eisenberg, J.F. 1992. Mammals of the Neotropics, The Southern Cone: Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Tarifa, T. 2009. Tolypeutes matacus. In: Aguirre, L.F., Aguayo, R., Balderrama, J.A., Cortez, C., Tarifa, T., and Rocha O., O. (eds), Libro rojo de la fauna silvestre de vertebrados de Bolivia, pp. 499-502. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua, La Paz.

Yepes, J. 1928. Los Edentata argentinos. Revista Universitaria de Buenos Aires 2a(1): 1-50.

Citation: Noss, A., Superina, M. & Abba, A.M. 2014. Tolypeutes matacus. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T21974A47443233. . Downloaded on 16 October 2018.
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