Anolis proboscis


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Anolis proboscis
Species Authority: Peters & Orces, 1956
Common Name/s:
English Proboscis Anole

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2009-06-30
Assessor/s: Mayer, G.C. & Poe, S.
Reviewer/s: Böhm, M., Collen, B. & Ram, M.
Contributor/s: De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Wearn, O.R., Wren, S., Zamin, T., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Lewis, S., Lintott, P. & Powney, G.
Anolis proboscis is a forest specialist with a restricted range. It is listed as Endangered because its known extent of occurrence is no larger than 200 km2, its area of occupancy was estimated as 33 km2 and all individuals are in fewer than five locations, as individuals have so far been found in only four locations, predominantly in vegetation along a single stretch of road. There is a continuing decline in the quality of its habitat due to logging, grazing and other human pressures, which is likely to cause declines in this species. More research is needed on the distribution and population of this species, as it may also be found in provinces to the north and south of Mindo, based on available habitat. Protected areas covering this species' distribution need to be established and population monitoring is recommended.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from mid-altitudes of western slopes of the Andes in Pichincha, Ecuador, from four localities around the town of Mindo, Pichincha province (S. Poe pers. comm. 2010, J.B. Losos pers. comm. 2010, Yánez-Muñoz et al. 2010). The furthest localities are only 13 km away from each other. Searches for the species in other areas around Mindo, including areas of better forest habitat, have not yet found any new localities (S. Poe pers. comm. 2010). However, the theoretically probable range of this species may be much larger, but confirmation of this depends on individuals being found in new localities. For example, it may also occur further north in the province of Imbabura and further south in the provinces of Cotopaxi and Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas (Yánez-Muñoz et al. 2010). Its currently known area of occupancy was estimated as 33 km2 (Yánez-Muñoz et al. 2010), and the estimated extent of occurrence is no more than 200 km2 (based on a maximum distance of 13 km between the furthest localities). All known individuals of this species are found in fewer than five locations. It has been found from altitudes ranging between 1,200 and 1,650 m above sea level (S. Poe pers. comm. 2010, Yánez-Muñoz et al. 2010).
Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland))
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There are no population data available for this species. However, the species was found to be relatively abundant at some localities (J.B. Losos pers. comm. 2010).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in montane forest habitat. The areas around Mindo, where this species has been collected, are made up of pasture land and secondary forest; however this species has been predominantly found in vegetation along a road (S. Poe pers. comm. 2010). It is a slow-moving, cryptically coloured species that occurs high in trees (J.B. Losos pers. comm. 2010). This species is named for its proboscis, an appendage extending from its snout, which is used in courtship.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The area in which this species is distributed has experienced major habitat loss due to logging, human settlement, agriculture, and grazing. This is likely to cause declines in this species, as due to its small range, it is more vulnerable to habitat alteration (J.B. Losos pers. comm. 2010).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No conservation measures are currently in place for this species. Research is required to ascertain whether the species ranges beyond the region of Pichincha, Ecuador, and as this species has a restricted range new protected areas should be established. Research and monitoring is necessary to establish the population trend of the species.

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Peters, J.A. and Donoso-Barros, R. 1986. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.

Rodrigues, M.T., Xavier, V., Skunk, G. and Pavan, D. 2002. New specimens of Anolis phyllorhinus (Squamata, Polychrotidae): the first female of the species and of proboscid anoles. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 42(16): 363-380.

Williams, E. 1979. South American anoles: the species groups. 2. The proboscis anoles (Anolis laevis group). Breviora 449: 1-19.

Yánez-Muñoz, M.H., Urgilés, M.A., Altamirano B., M. and Cáceres S., S.R. 2010. Redescripción de Anolis proboscis Peters & Orcés (Reptilia: Polychrotidae), con el descubrimiento de las hembras de la especie y comentarios sobre su distribución y taxonomía. Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías 2: in press.

Citation: Mayer, G.C. & Poe, S. 2011. Anolis proboscis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 21 April 2014.
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