Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae

Scientific Name: Boraras maculatus
Species Authority: (Duncker, 1904)
Common Name(s):
English Dwarf Rasbora, Dwarf-spotted Rasbora, Dwarf, Pygmy Rasbora, Spotted Rasbora
Boraras maculata (Duncker, 1904)
Rasbora maculata Duncker, 1904

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-07-22
Assessor(s): Allen, D.
Reviewer(s): Ng, H.H. & Smith, K.
Contributor(s): Jenkins, A., Kullander, F.F. & Tan, H.H.
Although this species is known to be impacted by loss of habitat (thick forest cover associated with streams and freshwater swamps), it is assessed as Least Concern due to its wide distribution and the lack of empirical evidence of population decline.  More research on the effects of habitat loss on the population are needed and it may be necessary to reassess this species once additional data in this regard is available.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is distributed from southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, to Indonesia (Sumatra and unconfirmed records from Kalimantan). The northernmost record in Thailand is from Phunphin in Surathani Province. The extent of its distribution in Indonesia is less certain.
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Sumatera); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Singapore; Thailand
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species has a wide distribution although the population size and trend are unknown.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A benthopelagic species that inhabits slow-flowing forest streams and freshwater swamps. The water where spawning occurs has a maximum depth of 15 cm and thick vegetation.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Movement patterns:Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Widely found in the ornamental fish trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Threats to this species and its habitat are unknown at present. It is impacted by forest loss (e.g. in Singapore) and likely by sedimentation, but further research is required.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures currently known to be in action at habitat or species level.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Anon. 1999. Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British M.

Anon. 2000. The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).

Anon. 2001. Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution - Division of Fishes., Washington D.C., USA.

Anon. 2001. Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Anon. 2002. Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West, New York, USA.

Bassleer, G. 1997. Color guide of tropical fish diseases: on freshwater fish. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek, Belgium.

Doi, A. 1997. A review of taxonomic studies of cypriniform fishes in Southeast Asia. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 44(1): 1-33.

Grabda, E. and Heese, T. 1991. Polskie nazewnictwo popularne kraglouste i ryby. Cyclostomata et Pisces. Wyzsza Szkola Inzynierska w Koszalinie, Koszalin.

Hanel, L. and Novák, J. 2002. České názvy zivočichů V. Ryby a ryboviti obratlovci (Pisces) 3., maloústí (Gonorhynchiformes) - máloostní (Cypriniformes). Národní muzeum (zoologické oddělení), Praha.

Hureau, J.-C. 1991. La base de données GICIM: Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. Atlas Preliminaire des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France, pp. 225-227. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environnement, CEMAGREF et Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Kottelat, M. and Vidthayanon, C. 1993. Boraras micros, a new genus and species of minute freshwater fish from Thailand (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 4(2): 161-176.

Kottelat, M. and Whitten, A.J. 1996. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi: additions and corrections. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong.

Kottelat, M., Whitten, A.J., Kartikasari, S.N. and Wirjoatmodjo, S. 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong.

Lim, K.K.P. and Ng, P.K.L. 1990. The freshwater fishes of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre, Singapore.

McKay, R.J. 1984. Introductions of exotic fishes in Australia. In: W.R. Courtenay, Jr. and J.R. Stauff (eds), Distribution, Biology and Management of Exotic fishes, pp. 177-199. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Mills, D. and Vevers, G. 1989. The Tetra encyclopedia of freshwater tropical aquarium fishes. Tetra Press, New Jersey.

Mohsin, A.K.M. and Ambak, M.A. 1983. Freshwater fishes of Peninsular Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Malaysia.

Riehl, R. and Baensch, H.A. 1991. Aquarien Atlas. Band. 1.

Riehl, R. and Baensch, H.A. 1996. Aquarien Atlas. Band 1. Mergus Verlag GmBH, Melle, Germany.

Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada..

Schliewen, U.K. 1992. Aquarium fish. Barron's Education Series, Incorporated.

Suvatti, C. 1981. Fishes of Thailand. Royal Institute of Thailand, Bangkok.

Swedish Museum of Natural History. 1999. NRM Ichthyology collection database..

Varjo, M. 1981. Kalannimiluettelo (List of Finnish fish names). Luonnon Tutkija 85: 1-60.

Vidthayanon, C. 2002. Peat swamp fishes of Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok, Thailand.

Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

Citation: Allen, D. 2012. Boraras maculatus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T169519A1277901. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
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