Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cobitidae

Scientific Name: Botia striata
Species Authority: Narayan Rao, 1920
Common Name(s):
English Zebra Loach
Botia striata subspecies kolhapurensis Kalawar & Kelkar, 1956
Taxonomic Notes: Botia striata was described by Rao (1920) from Tunga river at Shimoga, Karnataka, India.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-19
Assessor(s): Dahanukar, N.
Reviewer(s): Rema Devi, K.R., Gopalakrishnan, A., Arunachalam, M., Shrikant, J., Johnson, J.A., Rahul, K. & Molur, S.
Contributor(s): Molur, S.
Botia striata is assessed as Endangered because the species is a habitat specialist and is inferred to have an area of less than 400 km2. Further the species is known from only four fragmented locations. The habitat of the species is severely threatened because of deforestation leading to siltation, recreational activities on the mountain tops and pollution of the hill streams.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Botia striata is endemic to the Western Ghats of India (Dahanukar et al. 2004). It has been recorded from Tunga and Bhadra rivers of Karnataka (Rao 1920, Shahanawaz and Venkateshwarlu 2009, Shahanawaz et al. 2010) and Panchaganga river and Koyna river of Maharashtra (Kalawar and Kelkar 1956, Jadhav et al. 2011). Record of this species from Vamanapuram river basin in Kerala by Johnson and Arunachalam (2009) could either be a different species or an introduced population as there are no other records from this and adjoining areas.
Countries occurrence:
India (Karnataka, Maharashtra)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:300-400
Number of Locations:4
Lower elevation limit (metres):500
Upper elevation limit (metres):700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


The species is relatively abundant in Koyna river (Jadhav et al. 2011). However, it is rare in Tungabhadra river (Shahanawaz and Venkateshwarlu 2009).

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Botia striata prefers clear mountain streams (Menon 1999). It is a bottom feeder and prefers sandy and gravel bottom. The habitat of this species is getting severely altered because of recreational activities on the mountain tops, deforestation leading to siltation and pollution of the hill streams, especially in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra (Neelesh Dahanukar pers. obs.).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Botia striata is in aquarium trade and it is caught from the wild. In Koyna the species is also sold in the fish markets by tribal people called Katkari.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Habitat alteration is the most severe threat to the species. Deforestation leading to siltation can disturb the stream bed of gravel and pebbles, which is preferred by the fish. Recreational activities on the mountain tops and pollution of the hill streams could also be threatening as the species prefers clear water.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Currently there is no conservation measures enlisted for this species. Research is needed on the population trends, harvest trends and specific threats to the species.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):0
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Dahanukar, N., Raut, R. and Bhat, A. 2004. Distribution, endemism and threat status of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India. Journal of Biogeography 31: 123-136.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Jadhav B.V, Kharat S.S, Raut R.N, Paingankar M & Dahanukar N. 2011. Freshwater fish fauna of Koyna River, northern Western Ghats, Indi. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(1): 1449-145.

Johnson, J. A. and Arunachalam, M. 2009. Diversity, distribution and assemblage structure of fishes in streams of southern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(10): 507-513.

Kalawar, A.G. and Kelkar, C.N. 1956. Fishes of Kolhapur. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 53(4): 669-679.

Menon, A.G.K. 1999. Check list - fresh water fishes of India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper No. 175.

Rao, C.R.N. 1920. Some new species of cyprinoid fish from Mysore. Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series 6(31): 45-64.

Rao, C.R.N. 1920. Some south Indian batrachians. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society: 119-127.

Shahnawaz, A and Venkateshwarlu, M. 2009. A checklist of fishes from the Tunga and Bhadra rivers, Karnataka, India with a special note on their biodiversity status. Current Biotica 3(2): 232-243.

Shahnawaz, A., Venkateshwarlu, M., Somashekar, D. S. and Santosh, K. 2010. Fish diversity with relation to water quality of Bhadra River of Western Ghats (INDIA). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 161: 83-91.

Citation: Dahanukar, N. 2013. Botia striata. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T168591A6521075. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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