Pastinachus solocirostris 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Chondrichthyes Rajiformes Dasyatidae

Scientific Name: Pastinachus solocirostris
Species Authority: Last, Manjaji & Yearsley, 2005
Common Name(s):
English Roughnose Stingray
Taxonomic Notes: It differs from the only other recognised member of the genus, P. sephen, in having a smaller adult size, more elongate disc and head, longer and more acute snout covered to its apex with enlarged denticles, more posteriorly located sting, longer and more slender ventral cutaneous fold, enlarged pearl-shaped nuchal thorns, and fewer pectoral-fin radials and vertebrae (Last et al. 2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2007-07-08
Assessor(s): Fahmi, White, W., Manjaji, B.M., Vidthayanon, C., Badi, S. & Capuli, E.
Reviewer(s): Valenti, S.V. & Musick, J.A. (Shark Red List Authority)
The Roughnose Stingray (Pastinachus solocirostris) is found only in Malaysian Borneo and Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra and Java). It primarily occurs in shallow waters in mangrove estuaries and turbid coastal marine habitats, to depths of <10 m, possibly to 30 m. Its restricted range and habitat have been heavily exploited during recent decades. This species is targeted, along with other rays, using bottom longlines in Indonesia and is also taken as bycatch in demersal gillnet and bottom trawl fisheries. All catches are retained and utilised. Significant loss of mangrove habitat (almost 30% loss of estimated combined mangrove area in Malaysia and Indonesia since 1980) through conversion of land to shrimp farms, logging and coastal development and degradation of coastal habitat are also major threats to this species. Given that this species has a limited distribution in heavily exploited shallow waters, extensive destruction and degradation of its mangrove habitat and continued high levels of exploitation, serious declines are suspected to have occurred, warranting a precautionary assessment of Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Western central Pacific: known only from Malaysian Borneo (Sarawak and southwestern Sabah), and Kalimantan, Sumatra and Java, Indonesia (Last et al. 2005, White et al. 2006).
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – western central
Lower depth limit (metres):30
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Population size of this species is unknown.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This stingray occurs primarily in mangrove estuaries and turbid coastal marine habitats (Last et al. 2005, Fahmi pers. obs. 2007). Most commonly occurs in very shallow waters at <10 m depth, but possibly down to 30 m. Attains a maximum size of at least 72cm disc width (DW) (Fahmi unpublished data). Females mature at 50-60 cm DW and males mature at 28-40 cm DW (White et al. 2006, Fahmi unpublished data). Reproduction is presumably viviparous, with histotrophy (White et al. 2006). Size at birth is ~22-23 cm DW (Fahmi unpublished data). One pregnant female observed contained one pup.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Utilised for its meat and probably its skin (White et al. 2006).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to this species are capture in fisheries and destruction and degradation of its shallow water habitat. It is captured in bottom longline fisheries targeting rays in eastern and western Kalimantan (Fahmi unpublished data). It is also caught occasionally by bottom trawl and demersal gillnet fisheries operating off Sumatra and Kalimantan (White et al. 2006). All catches are retained and utilised for meat and probably also its skin (White et al. 2006, Fahmi unpublished data). The level of exploitation on its shallow water habitat is very high and it is considered to be at a very high level of threat throughout its range.

Habitat destruction and pollution (chemical) through aquaculture (specifically conversion of mangrove habitat into shrimp farms), mining and coastal development is a major threat to this species. This species is known to be associated with mangrove habitat in very shallow water (M. Manjaji pers. obs. 2007) and is therefore considered highly vulnerable to destruction of this habitat. Extensive areas of mangrove forest have been lost in Indonesia and Malaysia through conversion of land for shrimp farms (Malaysia, East Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra), excessive logging, urban development (Malaysia) and, to a lesser extent, conversion of land to agriculture or salt pans (Java and Sulawesi) (FAO 2007). Indonesia lost about 1,300,000 hectares of mangroves from 1980-2005 (>30% of mangrove area in 1980) and Malaysia lost about 110,000 hectares during the same period (>16% of mangrove area in 1980) (FAO 2007). This represents a loss of >30% of combined overall mangrove area in Indonesia and Malaysia. In addition to loss of mangrove forests, extensive habitat degradation through destructive fishing practices and pollution has also impacted this species' shallow water habitat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None in place. Full assessment and careful monitoring of population trends and catch data are required.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability: Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.10. Marine Neritic - Estuaries
suitability: Suitable  
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.7. Marine Intertidal - Mangrove Submerged Roots
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.4. Marine & freshwater aquaculture -> 2.4.2. Industrial aquaculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing    

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Wearing apparel, accessories
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: (Accessed: 3 November 2009).

Last, P.R., Manjaji, B.M. and Yearsley, G.K. 2005. Pastinachus solocirostris sp. nov., a new species of Stingray (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatiformes) from the Indo-Malay Archipelago. Zootaxa 1040: 1-16.

White, W.T., Last, P.R., Stevens, J.D., Yearsley, G.K., Fahmi and Dharmadi. 2006. Economically Important Sharks and Rays of Indonesia. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia.

Citation: Fahmi, White, W., Manjaji, B.M., Vidthayanon, C., Badi, S. & Capuli, E. 2009. Pastinachus solocirostris. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T161465A5430340. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided