Ceruchus chrysomelinus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA ARTHROPODA INSECTA COLEOPTERA LUCANIDAE

Scientific Name: Ceruchus chrysomelinus
Species Authority: (Hochenwart, 1785)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-06-05
Assessor(s): Mannerkoski, I., Hyvärinen, E., Alexander, K., Büche, B. & Campanaro, A.
Reviewer(s): Nieto, A. & Alexander, K.
Justification:
European regional assessment: assessed as Near Threatened. Typically restricted to old-growth forests (both broadleaved and coniferous), where it depends upon large lying logs that have been decaying for a long time. Consequently it requires both old, relatively large trees and a management regime that allows decaying logs to be left lying for many years.  This is a very specific habitat type which is already highly fragmented and subject to continuing significant decline. Although this species has a relatively wide distribution, its Area of Occupancy is small as it is only found in a very specific type of habitat. The Area of Occupancy of this species has not been quantified, but it may not be much greater than 2,000 km2. The rate of loss of suitable habitat has not been quantified, but it is significant, and it may potentially exceed 20% in the next ten years (= three generations). The colonisation ability of this species is poor (it does not fly long distances). Action is urgently needed to protect and appropriately manage existing habitat, as well as to ensure that suitable habitat continues to be available in future.

EU 27 regional assessment: assessed as Near Threatened. Typically restricted to old-growth forests (both broadleaved and coniferous), where it depends upon large lying logs that have been decaying for a long time. Consequently it requires both old, relatively large trees and a management regime that allows decaying logs to be left lying for many years.  This is a very specific habitat type which is already highly fragmented and subject to continuing significant decline. Although this species has a relatively wide distribution, its Area of Occupancy is small as it is only found in a very specific type of habitat. The Area of Occupancy of this species has not been quantified, but it may not be much greater than 2,000 km2. The rate of loss of suitable habitat has not been quantified, but it is significant, and it may potentially exceed 20% in the next ten years (= three generations). The colonisation ability of this species is poor (it does not fly long distances). Action is urgently needed to protect and appropriately manage existing habitat, as well as to ensure that suitable habitat continues to be available in future.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is widespread across most of Europe; absent from Britain and Ireland. A boreo-montane species. According to Fauna Europaea (2004) it is endemic to Europe.
Countries:
Native:
Austria; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Estonia; Finland; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Italy (Italy (mainland)); Latvia; Lithuania; Montenegro; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, East European Russia, Kaliningrad, Northwest European Russia); Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia, Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part))
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Generally rare, declining and localized.

In Sweden it is very rare (Nilsson et al. 2000) and only present in the south. In Finland it is very rare and declining.

In Ukraine it occurs in the Carpathian where it is very rare. In Romania this species has not been deeply investigated but many reports are from the south-western Carpathians (P. Istrate pers. comm. 2009). In the Czech Republic there are few localities, rare and declining.

In France it is very localized (Baraud 1993); it has been found in the mountains of Jura, Alps and the Pyrenees (Baraud 1993); in the Alps there are only seven localities (B. Dodelin pers. comm. 2009), and less than ten localities for the whole country (Paulian and Baraud 1982). Although it is mentioned as very restricted to the Pyrenaic region (López-Colón 2000), no records exist for Spain (P. Bahíllo de la Puebla pers. comm. 2009).  In Italy it is also very rare and declining; there are about 20 localities in total in north-eastern Alps and one single old record from the northern part of the central Appenines. In Germany its presence was recently confirmed only in mountains in southern Germany; it is very rare; few recent records only from forest reserves. Seems to have disappeared from exploited or managed areas. In Switzerland there are 19 localities, but some of those from old records.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is an obligate saproxylic species. The larvae develop in old lying sections of large tree trunks with advanced development of red-rotten heartwood decay, either conifers or broad-leaves. In France larvae are saproxylophagous in wet red-rotten heartwood of Picea and Abies trunks. Also found in Quercus red rot in Poland. In Ukraine larvae develop in decayed wood (brown stage of decay) of broad-leaved trees. In Romania reports are from old broad-leaved and coniferous forests. Only found in relatively cold, humid and aged forest with a long continuity of deadwood supply and low level of tree harvesting. Adults emerge during autumn and stay in the trunk during winter. Most of the known localities have not been exploited for 50 years at least. Inhabits forests with a high density of moist red-rotten logs of both conifer and broad-leaved trees, probably dependent on a continuous supply of suitable logs at the landscape scale (Nilsson et al.  2000).

Typically restricted to old-growth forests (both broad-leaved and coniferous). It depends upon large lying logs that have been decaying for a long time (e.g. it colonises at a late successional stage). Consequently it requires both old, large trees and a management regime that allows decaying logs to be left lying for many years.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Saproxylic Coleoptera tend to be popular with beetle collectors although trade is rarely an issue, the only exceptions being a few larger species of more dramatic form or colour.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

This species is restricted to veteran trees, so any activities which destroy these trees is strongly detrimental to the species. The main overall threat is likely to be degradation or loss of habitat quality, involving structural changes in the tree populations arising from changing land use – affecting age structures and tree density. Exploitation from forestry is often a key immediate issue. Fragmentation and increasing isolation of beetle populations are also key factors.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Generally, the most important conservation measure to be recommended is the protection of large old trees, and habitat management to ensure that there is a constant or increasing supply of such veteran trees in future. Additionally, fallen trunks and boughs should be left to decay rather than 'cleaned up'.

This species occurs in a number of protected areas.

It is regarded as Critically Endangered in the Czech Republic and as Near Threatened in Slovakia.

Bibliography [top]

Baraud, J. 1993. Les Coléoptères Lucanoidea de l'Europe et du Nord de l'Afrique. Bulletin mensuel de la Société linnéenne de Lyon 62(2): 42-64.

Fauna Europaea. 2004. Fauna Europaea. Version 1.1. Available at: http://www.faunaeur.org/.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.1). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 March 2010).

López-Colón, J. I. 2000. Familia Lucanidae. In: Martín-Piera, F.; López-Colón, J. I. (ed.), Fauna Iberica Vol. 14: Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea I., CSIC, Madrid.

Nilsson, S.G., Baranowski, R., Ehnstrom, B., Eriksson, P., Hedin, J. and Ljungberg, H. 2000. Ceruchus chrysomelinus (Coleoptera, Lucanidae), a disappearing virgin forest relict species? [in Swedish with English summary]. Ent Tidskr 121: 137 and ff.

Paulian, R. and Baraud, J. 1982. Faune des Coléoptères de France 2, Lucanoidea et Scarabaeoidea. Lechevalier, Paris.


Citation: Mannerkoski, I., Hyvärinen, E., Alexander, K., Büche, B. & Campanaro, A. 2010. Ceruchus chrysomelinus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 September 2014.
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