Pseudanthias ventralis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Serranidae

Scientific Name: Pseudanthias ventralis (Randall, 1979)
Anthias ventralis hawaiiensis Randall, 1979
Taxonomic Notes: There are two subspecies: Pseudanthias ventralis ventralis and Pseudanthias ventralis hawaiiensis.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-02-04
Assessor(s): Sadovy, Y.J.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.
Pseudanthias ventralis has been assessed as Least Concern.  Although this species is harvested for the aquarium trade, due to its fast life-history characteristics, it is unlikely that this threat is causing significant population declines.  Further research and monitoring of this species is needed.  The extent of damage caused by the indiscriminate fishing practices should also be monitored, to determine if the habitat of this species is being significantly degraded.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This Pacific species has two subspecies which have distinct distributions.  Pseudanthias ventralis ventralis has been found around the southwest Pacific in New Caledonia, the Tumaotu Archipelago, the Marshall Islands, and the Pitcairn group.  Pseudanthias ventralis hawaiiensis is found around the Hawaiian Islands.
Countries occurrence:
Marshall Islands; New Caledonia; Pitcairn; United States (Hawaiian Is.)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – western central; Pacific – eastern central
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):120
Upper depth limit (metres):26
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no population information available for Pseudanthias ventralis.  However, the life history characteristics of the Anthiinae sub-family (short-lived, high natural mortality rate, high growth rate, and high recruitment rate) (Russ and Alcala 1998) suggest that they are likely to be abundant.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Pseudanthias ventralis is a secretive, coral reef-associated fish.  Pseudanthias ventralis hawaiiensis is found at a depth range of 26–68 m and Pseudanthias ventralis ventralis is found at a depth range of 26–120 m.  Most specimens have been collected from caves or from beneath ledges; other specimens have been found by reef rubble along steep drop-offs or channel walls.  Pseudanthias ventralis will leave its cave to feed on zooplankton such as copepods.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is harvested for the aquarium trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is unlikely that Pseudanthias ventralis is being impacted by any major threat processes across its range.  This species is harvested for the aquarium trade, but due to its fast life history, this is unlikely to significantly impact population size.  Indiscriminate fishing methods such as blast fishing may be causing habitat degradation.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Pseudanthias ventralis, however its distribution may coincide with a number of marine protected area designations.

Further research and monitoring of the population numbers, habitat status, and harvest levels of this species is needed.  The extent of damage caused by indiscriminate fishing practices should also be monitored to determine if the habitat of this species is being significantly degraded.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.

Classifications [top]

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.6. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2006. FishBase. Available at:

Hureau, J.C. 1991. La base de données GICIM: Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. In: J. Allardi and P. Keith (eds), Atlas preliminaire des poissons d'eau douce de France, pp. 225-227. Museum D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Lovell, E., Sykes, H., Deiye, M., Wantiez, L., Garrigue, C., Virly, S., Samuelu, J., Solofa, A., Poulasi, T., Pakoa, K., Sabetian, A., Afzal, D., Hughes, A. and Sulu, R. 2004. Status of coral reefs in the southwest Pacific: Fiji, Nauru, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. In: C. Wilkinson (ed.), Status of the coral reefs of the world: 2004, pp. 337-362. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

Randall, J.E. 1979. A review of the serranid fish genus Anthias of the Hawaiian Islands, with descriptions of two new species. Contributions of the Science and Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County 302: 1-13.

Russ, G.R. and Alcala, A.C. 1998. Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983-1993:roles of life history and fishing intensity in family responses. Coral Reefs 17(4): 399-416.

Wood, L.J. 2007. MPA Global: A Database of the World's Marine Protected Areas. Available at:

Citation: Sadovy, Y.J. 2010. Pseudanthias ventralis. In: (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T154889A115249432. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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