Apolemichthys kingi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Pomacanthidae

Scientific Name: Apolemichthys kingi Heemstra, 1984
Common Name(s):
English Tiger Angelfish

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-08
Assessor(s): Pyle, R., Craig, M.T. & Rocha, L.A.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B., Elfes, C., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.
Apolemichthys kingi has been assessed as Least Concern. This is a rare species with a relatively small geographic range. It may be harvested as by-catch and is occasionally for the aquarium trade. However, it occurs within a marine protected area with reefs in relatively good condition. Due to the rarity and restricted range of this species, further research is recommended on the harvest levels and other potential threats to this species.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found around Inhaca Island, Mozambique (Pereira 2000) and between Kosi Bay and Aliwal Shoal in South Africa (Michael 2004, Endoh 2007). It is most common at depths of more than 25 m.
Countries occurrence:
Mozambique; South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – western
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):50
Upper depth limit (metres):10
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Animals are rarely seen by divers (P.C. Heemstra pers.comm. 2009), although it is not clear if this is a result of its preference for deep reef habitats or natural scarcity (P.C. Heemstra pers.comm. 2009).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species has been recorded from rocky offshore reefs with abundant sponge growth. It feeds on sponges and tunicates and occurs alone, or in small groups consisting of a male and several females.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is rarely seen in the international aquarium fish trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The collection of species for the ornamental trade off Mozambique is unregulated at present. Due to the intensity of the artisanal fishing industry off Mozambique, it is likely that this species is occasionally taken as by-catch. Habitat degradation is unlikely to pose a major threat to this species as much of its range is found within a World Heritage Site. At present the reefs within this species' range are in good condition.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species, however it occurs within the Simangaliso National Park and Maputaland Marine Reserve. Further research is needed on the population trends, harvest levels and threats of this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.3. Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Allen, G.R., Steene, R. and Allen, M. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research.

Carl, H. 2003. Danish fish names. Unpublished, Zoological Museum of Copenhagen.

Endoh, K. 2007. Angelfishes of the World. Two Little Fishies, Inc., Miami Gardens, Florida.

Hardy Jr., J.D. 2003. Coral reef fish species. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) Coral Reef Data and Information Management System. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Oceanographic Data Center.

Heemstra, P.C. 1995. Additions and corrections for the 1995 impression. In: M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds), Revised Edition of Smiths' Sea Fishes, pp. v-xv. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Lieske, E. and Myers, R. 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific and Caribbean including the Red Sea. Harper Collins Publishers.

McClanahan, T. Sheppard, C. and Obura, D. 2000. Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean their ecology and conservation. Oxford University Press, Inc.

Michael, S.W. 2004. Angelfishes and butterflyfishes: plus ten more aquarium fish families with expert captive care advice for the marine aquarist. T.F.H. Publication, Microcosm, Neptune City, America.

Pereira, M.A. 2000. A review on the ecology, exploitation and conservation of reef fish resources in Mozambique. 2nd National Conference on Coastal Zones Research. Maputo.

Wilkinson, C. 2004. Status of coral reefs of the world: 2004. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

Citation: Pyle, R., Craig, M.T. & Rocha, L.A. 2010. Apolemichthys kingi. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T154809A4639390. . Downloaded on 18 June 2018.
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