Macaca nigra 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Macaca nigra (Desmarest, 1822)
Common Name(s):
English Celebes Crested Macaque, Black Crested Macaque, Celebes Black Macaque, Celebes Macaque, Crested Black Macaque, Gorontalo Macaque, Sulawesi Black Macaque, Sulawesi Macaque
French Cynopithèque Nègre, Macaque Des Célèbes
Spanish Macaca Negra
Macaca lembicus (Miller, 1931)
Macaca malayanus (Desmoulins, 1824)
Taxonomic Notes: Individuals with intermediate characteristics, presumably hybrids, have historically been seen along the border of this species with M. nigriscens (this contact zone may no longer exist, though) (Sugardjito et al. 1989).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Supriatna, J. & Andayani, N.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species is considered Critically Endangered in light of a continuing decline, and that in the past 3 generations (approximately 40 years) the population has been reduced by more than 80% due to habitat loss and hunting pressure. The introduced population of over 100,000 individuals is not considered in this assessment as it is a pest and is itself a threat to Bacan Island (Molucca Islands).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs on northeastern Sulawesi, Indonesia and the adjacent islands of Pulau Manadotua and Pulau Talise. It was historically found on Pulau Lembeh as well but has probably been extirpated from there. On Sulawesi it is found on the northern arm east of the Onggak Dumoga River and Mount Padang to the tip of the peninsula (Groves 2001). There is a sizeable introduced population on Pulau Bacan in the Maluku Islands (Indonesia).
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Maluku - Introduced, Sulawesi)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Density is estimated to be approximately 3 individuals/km2, except in Tangkoko Batuangus where it is approximately 60 individuals/km2 (J. Supriatna pers. comm.). The introduced population on the island of Pulau Bacan in the Moluccas probably numbers at least 100,000 individuals (Rosenbaum et al. 1998), but is not considered in this assessment.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in rainforests at moderate elevations. It is frugivorous, but will also eat immature leaves, arthropods, stalks of newly flowering plants, and cultivated crops (fruits, vegetables, and maize).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There is extensive habitat loss within its range. Hunting for bush meat is a major threat, so although the habitat appears to be intact in many places much of it is currently unoccupied. Some animals are also caught for the live animal trade. Extensive illegal "small scale" open area mining for gold, using mercury, within the parks is a regional threat. Shifting cultivation by local communities is an increasing threat. This is probably the most threatened primate species on Sulawesi (J. Burton pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES Appendix II. It occurs in several protected areas (Gunung Lokon, Gunung Amban,Tangkoko Batuangus, Dua Saudara, and Batu Putih). However, there is urgent action needed to stop the encroachment into protected areas especially Tangkoko, which represents the most likely viable natural remaining population of the species to survive. M. nigra is relatively common in captivity.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Groves C.P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Rosenbaum, B. O'Brien, T. G., Kinnaird, M. and Supriatna, J. 1998. Population densities of Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) on Bacan and Sulawesi, Indonesia: effects of habitat disturbance and hunting. American Journal of Primatology 44(2): 89-106.

Sugardjito, J., Southwick, C. H., Supriatna, J., Kohlaas, A., Baker, S., Erwin, J., Froehlich, J. and Lerche, N. 1989. Population survey of macaques in northern Sulawesi. American Journal of Primatology 18(4): 285-301.

Watanabe, K. and Matsumura, S. 1991. The borderlands and possible hybrids between three species of macaques, M. nigra, M. nigriscens, and M. hecki, in the northern peninsula of Sulawesi. Primates 32(3): 365-369.

Citation: Supriatna, J. & Andayani, N. 2008. Macaca nigra. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12556A3357272. . Downloaded on 18 July 2018.
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