Indri indri

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES INDRIIDAE

Scientific Name: Indri indri
Species Authority: (Gmelin, 1788)
Common Name/s:
English Indri
French Indri À Queue Courte
Spanish Indri Colicorto
Taxonomic Notes: Two subspecies have been proposed (Groves 2001), but results from recent genetic research seem to indicate the presence of both subspecies at Mantadia National Park, supporting the opinion that the two major colour forms are merely part of a clinal variation and not indicative of distinct taxa.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor/s: Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P.
Reviewer/s: Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Endangered as the species is thought to have undergone a reduction of more than 50% over the past 36 years (assuming a generation length of 12 years) due primarily to a decline in area and quality of habitat within the known range of the species and due to levels of exploitation.
History:
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered (Groombridge 1994)
1990 Endangered (IUCN 1990)
1990 Endangered (IUCN 1990)
1988 Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
1986 Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This highly distinctive lemur is endemic to the island of Madagascar where it inhabits the eastern rain forests from Anjanaharibe-Sud in the north south to Anosibe An-ala Classified Forest. It has not been found on the Masoala Peninsula or in Marojejy (Mittermeier et al. 2008). Usually at low eleveations, but ranges up to 1,800 m (Goodman and Ganzhorn 2004).
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Population densities are low, typically ranging from 5.2-22.9 per km² (Powzyk and Thalmann 2003).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The Indri inhabits tropical moist lowland and montane forests. It lives in groups of two to six individuals, normally consisting of a monogamous adult pair (they seek new partners only after a mate dies) and their offspring. Groups in fragmented habitat tend to be larger than those in more extensive, undisturbed areas (Pollock 1979, Powzyk 1997). The diet consists primarily of immature leaves supplemented by flowers, fruit, seeds and bark, which vary in proportion according to season. They occasionally descend to the ground to eat earth, perhaps to detoxify seeds that have also been consumed (Powzyk 1997, Britt et al. 2002, Powzyk and Thalmann 2003). Home ranges average 18 ha in the fragmented forests of Analamazaotra, but have been estimated as large as 40 ha in the more pristine forests of Mantadia. Females give birth every two to three years. Reproduction is highly seasonal, with the birth of a single offspring occurring in May or June. Reproductive maturity is reached between seven and nine years of age (Pollock 1977).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Indris are threatened by the loss of rain forest habitat to supply fuel and timber and to make way for slash-and-burn agriculture. Hunting of the Indri was considered taboo by many local people (and still is in some areas), but fady has broken down in many regions and hunting pressure is now quite significant in some areas. Studies of villages in the Makira Forest indicate that Indri have also been hunted in the past for their skins, which were worn as clothing, that the meat is prized and fetches a premium price, and that current levels of hunting are unsustainable (Golden 2005).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It occurs in three national parks (Mananara-Nord, Mantadia and Zahamena), two nature reserves (Betampona and Zahamena) and five special reserves (Analamazaotra, Mangerivola, Ambatovaky, Anjanaharibe-Sud, and Marotandrano) (Mittermeier et al. 2008). The corridors between Mantadia and Zahamena is being proposed as a Conservation Site. Anosibe An-ala Classified Forest in the south should be proposed as a protected area. A major region wide conservation education campaign to eliminate hunting, with the Indri as the flagship species, is recommended.

Bibliography [top]

Britt, A., Randriamandratonirina, N. J., Glasscock, K. D. and Iambana, B. R. 2002. Diet and feeding behaviour of Indri indri in a low-altitude rain forest. Folia Primatologica 73(5): 225–239.

Golden, C. D. 2005. Eaten to endangerment: Mammal hunting and the bushmeat trade in Madagascar’s Makira Forest. Undergraduate Thesis, Harvard University.

Goodman, S. M. and Ganzhorn, J. U. 2004. Elevational Ranges of Lemurs in the Humid Forests of Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology 25(2): 331-350.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.

Pollock, J.I. 1977. The ecology and sociology of feeding in Indri indri. In: T. H. Clutton-Brock (ed.), Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes., pp. 37–69. Academic Press, New York, USA.

Pollock, J. J. 1979. Spatial distribution and ranging behavior in lemurs. In: G. A. Doyle and R. D. Martin (eds), The Study of Prosimian Behavior, pp. 359 – 409. Academic Press, New York, USA.

Powzyk, J. A. 1997. The socio-ecology of two sympatric indrids, Propithecus diadema diadema and Indri indri: A comparison of feeding strategies and their possible repercussions on species-specific behaviors. Ph.D. Thesis, Duke University.

Powzyk, J. and Thalmann, U. 2003. Indri indri, indri. In: S. M. Goodman and J. P. Benstead (eds), The Natural History of Madagascar, pp. 1342–1345. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.

Citation: Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. 2008. Indri indri. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 April 2014.
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