Heterohyrax brucei 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Hyracoidea Procaviidae

Scientific Name: Heterohyrax brucei (Gray, 1868)
Common Name(s):
English Bush Hyrax, Hoggar Hyrax, Yellow-spotted Hyrax, Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax
French Daman de steppe
Heterohyrax antineae (Heim de Balsac & Begouen, 1932)
Heterohyrax chapini (Hatt, 1933)
Hyrax brucei Gray, 1868
Taxonomic Notes: Heterohyrax is considered here a monotypic genus following Barry and Hoeck (2013). Considered to be polytypic in other classifications, with the forms antineae (from the Ahaggar Massif in southern Algeria) and chapini treated as distinct isolated species (e.g., Schlitter 1993). Heterohyrax chapini here subsumed under H. brucei, following recent authors (Barry and Shoshani 2000, Shoshani 2005, Barry and Hoeck 2013), while the form antineae is considered to be a synonym of P. capensis (Hoffmann et al. 2008). 24 subspecies have been described, and while the validity of many is in doubt, some may represent distinct species (Barry and Shoshani 2000, Barry and Hoeck 2013).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-01-20
Assessor(s): Butynski, T., Hoeck, H. & de Jong, Y.A.
Reviewer(s): Taylor, A.
Contributor(s): Barry, R., Bloomer, P. & Shoshani, H.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Koren, L.
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, its occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Heterohyrax brucei, is endemic to Africa, and has a wide distribution. The species occurs from the northern parts of South Africa (Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces) northwards to Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia; there is a large, disjoint population in west-central Angola (H. b. bocagei) (Barry and Shoshani 2000, Barry and Hoeck 2013), and an apparently isolated subpopulation in southwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo (H. b. chapini). References to this species in Algeria and Egypt are in error, and both relate to confusion with P. capensis (Hoffmann et al. 2008).

Countries occurrence:
Angola; Botswana; Burundi; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Somalia; South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga); South Sudan; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):3800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Widespread and locally abundant in East Africa, but more localized and at lower population densities in parts of southern Africa (Barry and Hoeck 2013). Densities in the Matobo National Park in Zimbabwe ranged from 0.5-1.1 individuals per ha from 1992-1996 (Barry and Mundy 1998). Rainfall, through its effect on fecundity, appears to be the factor primarily responsible for annual fluctuations in abundance (Barry and Mundy 1998).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Habitat consists of rocky koppies (small hills or outcrops), sheer cliffs or precipices, and piles of large boulders (Barry and Shoshani 2000, Barry and Hoeck 2013). Supported by Acacia bushland and woodland in the vicinity of boulders and outcrops in East Africa (T.M. Butynski and Y.A. de Jong pers. comms.). Commonly in association with Procavia capensis (Barry and Hoeck 2013). Heterohyrax brucei are present up to elevations of 3,800 m in East Africa (Kingdon 1971). Predominantly a browser, feeding on leaves, fruits, stems and bark (Barry and Shoshani 2000). Comprehensive reviews can be found in Barry and Shoshani (2000), and in Barry and Hoeck (2013).


Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is used for meat and skins. Skins used for blankets in southern Africa (Barry and Hoeck 2013).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species. Locally, the species may be hunted for their pelts

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Bush Hyrax are found in many large, well-protected areas. The taxonomic and population status of isolated subpopulations should be assessed.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Barry, R.E. and Hoeck, H.E. 2013. Heterohyrax brucei Bush Hyrax. In: J.S. Kingdon, D.C.D. Happold, Hoffmann, T.M. Butynski, M. Happold and J. Kalina (eds), Mammals of Africa. Vol. I: Introductory Chapters and Afrotheria, pp. 161-165. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

Barry, R.E. and Mundy, P.J. 1998. Population dynamics of two species of hyraxes in the Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology 36: 221-233.

Barry, R.E. and Shoshani, J. 2000. Heterohyrax brucei. Mammalian Species 645: 1-7.

Bothma, J. du P. 1971. Order Hyracoidea. In: J. Meester and H.H. Setzer (eds), The Mammals of Africa: An Identification Manual, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Hoeck, H.N. 1975. Differential feeding behavior of the sympatric hyrax Procavia johnstoni and Heterohyrax brucei. Oecologia 22: 15-49.

Hoffmann, M., Hoeck, H.N. and De Smet, K. 2008. Does the bush hyrax Heterohyrax brucei occur in North Africa? Afrotheria Conservation 6: 6-8.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Available at: (Accessed: 23 June 2015).

Kingdon, J.S. 1971. East African Mammals. An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Academic Press, London, UK.

Schlitter, D.A. 1993. Order Hyracoidea. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, pp. 373-374. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Shoshani, J. 2005. Order Hyracoidea. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 87-89. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Citation: Butynski, T., Hoeck, H. & de Jong, Y.A. 2015. Heterohyrax brucei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T9997A21283287. . Downloaded on 19 February 2018.
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