|Scientific Name:||Helarctos malayanus (Raffles, 1821)|
Ursus malayanus Raffles, 1821
|Taxonomic Notes:||Sun Bears on Borneo (Helarctos malayanus euryspilus) are sufficiently different from those on the Asian mainland and Sumatra, representing the typical form (H. m. malayanus), as to warrant subspecific differentiation (Meijaard 2004). There was one case of a wild Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) - Sun Bear hybrid recorded in Cambodia (Galbreath et al. 2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Scotson, L., Fredriksson, G., Augeri, D., Cheah, C., Ngoprasert, D. & Wai-Ming, W.|
|Reviewer(s):||Steinmetz, R. & Garshelis, D.L.|
|Contributor(s):||Bendixsen, T., Choudhury, A., Galbreath, G., Goodrich, J., Htun, S., Hunt, M., Islam, M.A., Long, B., Olsson, A., Singh, P., Usher, G., Vongkhamheng, C., Wong, S.T., Zathang, L. & Sasidhran, S.|
Sun Bears are declining across their range. Although lacking direct empirical estimates of population trends, country experts from the IUCN SSC Bear Specialist Group made subjective estimates of rates of population loss over three generations (30 years in the past, a 30-year window overlapping the present, and 30 years into the future) based on dwindling geographic ranges, loss and degradation of habitat, and high levels of exploitation. Weighting each country’s estimate of population change by the country’s areal proportion of the geographic range yielded an overall estimated decline of ~35% for the past 30 years, and ~40% or more for time periods including the future. Thus, this species meets the criterion A threshold for Vulnerable.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The historic range of this species (within 500 years) extended across much of Southeast Asia, from Borneo and Sumatra north to at least Yunnan Province, China. Fossil records from the Pleistocene have been found much farther north (Erdbrink 1953). Assam, in northeast India, marks the northwestern confirmed historic range limit (Wroughton 1916, Higgins 1932). Reports of Sun Bears formerly occupying the Terai of Nepal (Hodgson 1844) appear to be erroneous. In the northeast, the range extends to northeastern Vietnam (Erdbrink 1953). The southern-most range limit is Indonesia; there are no records of Sun Bears ever occurring farther east than Borneo. Records exist from the Island of Java from middle-late Pleistocene (Erdbrink 1953) but there is no evidence of occurrence there within historic times.|
In present day, Sun Bears occur patchily through much of the former range, and have been locally extirpated from many areas. This is particularly evident in Thailand, where bears are mainly limited to a patchwork of protected areas separated by expanses of agriculture (Kanchanasakha et al. 2010). The range extends westward to southern Bangladesh and northeastern India (West Garo Hills, Meghalaya), northwards to eastern Arunachal Pradesh (Chauhan 2006; Choudhury 2011; Sethy and Chauhan 2012, 2013) and northern Myanmar. The Sun Bear's range is sympatric with Asiatic Black Bears (Ursus thibetanus) across mainland Southeast Asia to about 9°N latitude (in peninsular Thailand), south of which Asiatic Black Bears do not occur. In the Sundaic region, its range extends south and eastwards to Sumatra and Borneo respectively (Steinmetz 2011).
In mainland Southeast Asia Sun Bears appear to exhibit a natural population gradient from the north to south being most abundant in the southern regions and becoming less common towards the northern edge of their range (Steinmetz 2011). A north to south gradient probably applies to the entire range as well, with population abundance lower in mainland Southeast Asia than in Sundaic Southeast Asia. This is based on higher population densities (Ngoprasert et al. 2012, Lee 2014 unpubl. data) and higher sign densities (Steinmetz et al. 2011, Fredriksson 2012) in the Sundaic region compared to the mainland. This gradient of abundance is presumed to be natural and unrelated to human exploitation as it was apparent in historical times (e.g., in India, Higgins 1932) and is also reflected by the relative frequency of fossil records in the mainland and Sundaic regions (Vos and Long 1993, Tougard 2001, Meijaard 2004). As such, Sun Bears are rare in the western and northern edges of their range in southern Bangladesh and Northeast India. There are no records of Sun Bears north of the Brahmaputra River in Assam or Arunachal Pradesh (Chauhan 2006, Islam et al. 2013, Choudhury 2011). Sun Bears are relatively less common in the northern highlands of Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (hereafter Lao PDR), compared with the southern region (Scotson 2010, 2012). Current distribution in northeastern Myanmar is uncertain due to political instability in the area but presumes to be in decline (Saw Htun, Wildlife Conservation Society, pers. comm. 2014). The northeastern range ends in eastern Vietnam, at the Red River, limited presumably by colder climates and unfavourable habitats.
Sun Bears were thought to be extirpated in Bangladesh until recent confirmed records in 2014 and 2015 (Anwarul Islam, WildTeam pers. comm. 2015). It is possible that a population in a southern Bangladesh is maintained through immigration from core areas in western Myanmar. Likewise, the existence of this species in China remains in doubt. Surveys in the most likely regions (remnant lowland natural forests) of Yunnan Province confirmed their absence in all but one small area (<600 km²) that could not be surveyed (Wen and Wang 2013). In 2016, video footage of a Sun Bear was obtained from a camera trap in this area, indicating the presence of at least one bear, <1 km from the Myanmar border (Li et al. 2017). It is unknown whether there is a transboundary population, or just a few individuals living near the border. Nevertheless, this represents the first confirmed record of the species in China in 45 years. Sun Bears most likely occurred in what is now Singapore, but were extirpated due to the widespread deforestation that occurred in the 1800s and 1900s (Corlett 1992, Brooks et al. 2003).
Native:Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Regional experts reported declines of Sun Bears in eight of ten current range countries (trends in two other current range countries—Brunei and Bangladesh—are unknown). There are few reliable estimates of Sun Bear population size and few studies have quantified population trends. Previous attempts to extrapolate population size from anecdotal information on bear density derived from occasional bear sightings and sign surveys (e.g., Davies and Payne 1981, Meijaard 2001) have led to unreliable estimates (Garshelis 2002).|
A camera-based mark-recapture survey in Thailand estimated population densities of 4.3 (95% Cl 1.6-11.6) and 5.9 (95% Cl 2.3-15.4) per 100 km² in two sites within Khao Yai National Park (Ngoprasert et al. 2012). In southern Sumatra, in Harapan Rainforest, a camera-based study estimated a density of Sun Bears of 26 bears per 100 km², 4-5 times higher than density estimates from Thailand (Lee 2014, unpubl. data). The methods used to estimate density in Thailand and Sumatra differed (capture-recapture and gas-model, respectively), but if results are comparable, they suggest substantially higher density of Sun Bears in the Sundaic portion of their range than on the mainland (where in part they coexist and potentially compete with Asiatic Black Bears).
In Thailand, Sun Bears have declined in some sites, for example Khao Yai National Park where camera trap photo encounter rates declined by nearly two-thirds from 0.73 per 100 days (over the period 1999-2003) to 0.27 (2003-2007) (Lynam et al. 2003, Jenks et al. 2011). But other populations seem to be doing better, with photo encounter rates stable in Kuiburi Natonal Park and Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary (Steinmetz, unpublished data). An earlier systematic mammal status assessment study with local people in Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, estimated that Sun Bear numbers declined by more than 40% in a 20-year period from 1984-2004 (Steinmetz et al. 2006). But improved protection and community engagement since then appears to have had a positive effect. In neighbouring Lao PDR, interviews in rural communities adjacent to bear habitat recorded widespread population declines (Scotson 2010, 2012). In west Sumatra, repeat camera trap surveys using an occupancy-based sampling framework revealed a decline in Sun Bear populations (5%/year) in response to high levels of deforestation (9%/year in the most deforested site) over 7-year period (Wong et al. 2013).
Sun Bear populations can recover in previously extirpated areas, given a nearby source population. In Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), sign transects were used to monitor relative abundance of Sun Bears in forest affected by fires and adjacent unburned forest from 2000 to 2010. In the unburned forest, Sun Bear density remained stable. In the recently burned forest, Sun Bear sign density was close to zero post fires, but in 10 years reached 65% of the sign densities in adjacent unburned forest (Fredriksson 2012).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Sun Bears are a forest-dependent species, favouring interior mature and/or heterogeneously structured primary forests (Augeri 2005). There are two ecologically distinct categories of tropical forest that comprise their natural range, distinguished by differences in climate, phenology, and floristic composition: seasonal evergreen and deciduous forest in the mainland (north of the Isthmus of Kra) and aseasonal evergreen rainforest in Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo.
|Generation Length (years):||10|
|Use and Trade:||
Sun Bears are commonly poached for their gall bladders (i.e., bile) and paws; the former is used as a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and the latter as an expensive delicacy. Traditionally, bear bile was used to treat a wide range of ailments and for promoting general good health and strength. Use was largely subsistence based, until around the mid 1900s, when international trade routes opened and commercial interest in bear bile began to grow. Bear bile forms a component of traditional Chinese medicine but has not commonly been part of traditional medicinal practices in Southeast Asian cultures. Thus, it is not typically used locally, but rather sold to consuming markets. Sun bears (or parts thereof) were one of the most commonly seized bear species in Asia from 2000-2011 (Burgess et al. 2014). Illegal import of Sun Bears or parts has been detected in the USA, New Zealand, UK and France, and illegal exportation from China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Singapore, Lao PDR, Indonesia and the USA (Foley et al. 2011, Burgess et al. 2014).
Sun Bears are threatened primarily by deforestation and commercial hunting, which occurs to varying degrees throughout the range (Duckworth et al. 2012, Stibig et al. 2014). Killing due to human-bear conflicts is an additional threat, although less obvious in its impact.
Measures to reduce habitat loss and poaching throughout the entire Sun Bear range are key actions needed to conserve Sun Bears. In areas with the highest deforestation rates, such as Indonesia and Malaysia (two globally leading oil palm producers), immediate action should be taken to protect remaining high conservation value forests from conversion to other land-uses, eliminate unsustainable logging, and effectively manage forest fires. Additionally, new protected areas should be established and effectively managed in order to preempt land conversion (Augeri 2005, Tumbelaka and Fredriksson 2006, Wong 2006) and protect critical Sun Bear habitat. For example, in Peninsular Malaysia, Nazeri et al. (2012), using MaxEnt modelling, reported that Sun Bears favour dense tropical evergreen forest over cultivated landscapes and areas in close proximity to roads. Of habitat deemed ‘highly suitable’ only 22% is contained within protected areas. These findings suggest that the present geographical extent of protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia provide insufficient coverage of habitat crucial for conserving Sun Bears.
|Errata reason:||The original version of this assessment was published with an older version of the distribution map. This errata assessment uses the updated distribution map.|
Augeri, D.M. 2005. On the Biogeographic Ecology of the Malayan Sun Bear. University of Cambridge.
Broadis, N. 2011. Evolving threats; lessons learnt from 15 years of bear protection in Cambodia. Oral Presentation, 21st International Conference for Bear Research and Management, Delhi, India.
Brodie, J. F., Giordano, A. J., Zipkin, E. F., Bernard, H., Mohd-Azlan, J. and Ambu. L. 2015. Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals. . Conservation Biology 29: 110-121.
Brodie, J.F., Giordano, A.J., Zipkin, E.F., Bernard, H., Mohd‐Azlan, J. and Ambu, L. 2015. Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals. Conservation Biology 29: 110-121.
Brook, B.W., Sodhl, N.S., and Ng, P.K.L. 2003. Catastrophic extinctions follow deforestation in Singapore. Nature 424(6947): 420-423.
Brown, T.H., Simangunsong, B.C.H., Sukadri, D., Brown, D.W., Subarudi, S.A., Darmawan, A. and Rufi’ie, A. 2005. Restructuring and revitalization of Indonesia’s wood-based industry: synthesis of three major studies. Ministry of Forestry, CIFOR, and DFID-MFP, Jakarta.
Bryan, J.E., Shearman, P.L., Asner, G.P., Knapp, D.E., Aoro G., and Lokes, B. 2013. Extreme Differences in Forest Degradation in Borneo: Comparing Practices in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei. PLoS ONE 8(7): e69679.
Burgess, E.A., Stoner, S.S. and Foley, K.E. 2014. Brought to bear: an analysis of seizures across Asia (2000-2011). TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
Caldecott, J.O. 1988. Hunting and Wildlife Management in Sarawak. IUCN Tropical Forest Programme, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Chauhan, N. P. S. and Jagdish Singh, R. K. 2006. Status and distribution of sun bears in Manipur, India. Ursus 17: 182-185.
Chauhan, N.S. 2006. The status of Malayan sun bears in India. Understanding Asian bears to secure their future, pp. 50-56. Japan Bear Network, Ibaraki, Japan.
Cheah, C.P.I. 2013. The ecology of Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) at the Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia and adjacent plantations. University Putra Malaysia.
Choudhury, A.U. 2011. Records of sloth bear and Malayan sun bear in north east India. Final report to International Association for Bear Research & Management (IBA). The Rhino Foundation for Nature in NE India, Guwahati, Assam, India.
Corlett, R.T. 1992. The ecological transformation of Singapore, 1819-1990. Journal of Biogeography 19: 411-420.
Curan, L.M., Trigg, S.N., McDonald, A.K., Astiani, D., Hardiono, Y.M., Siregar, P., Caniago, I. and Kasischke, E. 2004. Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian Borneo. Science 303: 1000-1003.
Davies, G. and Payne, J.B. 1982. A Faunal Survey of Sabah. WWF Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
Dong, J., Xiao, X., Sheldon, S., Biradar, C., Zhang, G., Duong, N.D., Hazarika, M., Wikantika, K., Takeuhci, W. and Moore III, B. 2014. A 50-m forest cover map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and its application on forest fragmentation assessment. PloS ONE 9(1).
Duckworth, J.W., Batters, G., Belant, J.L., Bennett, E.L., Brunner, J., Burton, J., Challender, D.W.S., Cowling, V., Duplaix, N., Harris, J. D., Hedges, S., Long, B., Mahood, S.P., McGowan, P.J.K., McShea, W.J., Oliver, W.L.R., Perkin, S., Rawson, B.M., Shepherd, C.R., Stuart, S.N., Talukdar, B.K., van Dijk, P.P., Vié, J-C., Walston, J.L., Whitten, T. and Wirth, R. 2012. Why South-East Asia should be the world’s priority for averting imminent species extinctions, and a call to join a developing cross-institutional programme to tackle this urgent issue. Sapiens 5(2).
Dutton, A.J., Hepburn, C. and Macdonald, D.W. 2011. A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile. PloS ONE 6(7).
Erdbrink, D.P. 1953. A review of fossil and recent bears of the Old World with remarks on their phylogeny based upon their dentition. Drukkerij Jan de Lange, Deventer, Netherlands.
FAO. 2010. Global Forests Resources Assessment 2010. Main Report. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Foley, K.E., Stengel, C.J. and Shepherd, C.R. 2011. Pills, Powders, Vials and Flakes: the bear bile trade in Asia. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
Frederick, C., Hunt, K.E., Kyes, R., Collins, D. and Wasser, S.K. 2012. Reproductive timing and aseasonality in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus). Journal of Mammalogy 93: 522-531.
Fredriksson, G.M. 2005. Human-sun bear conflicts in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Ursus 16: 130-137.
Fredriksson, G.M. 2012. Effects of El Niño and large-scale forest fires on the ecology and conservation of Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.
Fredriksson, G.M., Danielsen, L.S. and Swenson, J.E. 2007. Impacts of El Niño related drought and forest fires on sun bear fruit resources in lowland dipterocarp forest of East Borneo. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 1823-1838.
Fredriksson, G.M., Wich, S.A. and Trisno. 2006. Frugivory in sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) is linked to El Nino-related fluctuations in fruiting phenology, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 489-508.
Galbreath, G.J., Hunt, M., Clements, T. and Waits, L.P. 2008. An apparent hybrid wild bear from Cambodia. Ursus 19: 85-86.
Garshelis, D.L. 2002. Misconceptions, ironies, and uncertainties regarding trends in bear populations. Ursus 13: 321-334.
Garshelis, D.L. and Scotson, L. 2012. World conservation congress votes to curtail bear farming. International Bear News 21: 12-16.
Gaveau, D.L., Sloan, S., Molidena, E., Yaen, H., Sheil, D., Abram, N.K., Ancrenaz, M., Nasi, R., Quinones, M., Wielaard, N. and Meijaard, E. 2012. Four decades of forest persistence, clearance and logging on Borneo. PloS ONE 9(7).
Gong, J. and Harris, R.B. 2006. The status of bears in China. Understanding Asian bears to secure their future, pp. 50-56. Japan Bear Network, Ibaraki, Japan.
Gray, T.N. and Phan, C. 2011. Habitat preferences and activity patterns of the larger mammal community in Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary, Cambodia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 59: 311-318.
Hansen, M.C, Stehman, S.V., Potapov, P.V., Arunarwati, B., Stolle, F. and Pittman, K. 2009. Quantifying changes in the rates of forest clearing in Indonesia from 1990 to 2005 using remotely sensed data sets. Environmental Research Letters 4(3).
Harrison, R.D. 2000. Repercussions of El Nino: drought causes extinction and the breakdown of mutualism in Borneo. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 267: 911-915.
Higgins, J.C. 1932. The Malay bear. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 35: 673-674.
Hodgson, B. H. 1844. Classified catalogue of mammals of Nepal. The Calcutta Journal of Natural History 4: 284-294.
Htun, S. 2006. The status and conservation of bears in Myanmar. Japan Bear Network, Ibaraki, Japan.
Hunt, M. and Scotson, L. 2011. Increased awareness of human-bear conflict in Lao PDR leads to instant results of the unexpected kind. International Bear News 20: 39-41.
INTERPOL. 2014. Assessment on Illegal Bear Trade. Environmental Security Sub-Directorate, Lyon, France.
Islam, M.A., Uddin, M., Aziz, M.A., Muzaffar, S.B., Chakma, S., Chowdhury, S.U., Chowdhury, G.W., Rashid, M.A., Mohsanin, S., Jahan, I., Saif, S., Hossain, M.B., Chakma, D., Kamruzzaman, M. and Akter, R. 2013. Status of bears in Bangladesh: going, going, gone? Ursus 24: 83-90.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 December 2017).
IUCN. 2018. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 28 June 2018).
Jenks, K., Chanteap, P., Damrongchainarong, K., Cutter, P., Cutter, P., Redford, T., Lynam, A., Howard, J. and Leimgruber, P. 2011. Using relative abundance indices from camera-trapping to test wildlife conservation hypotheses -- an example from KhaoYai National Park, Thailand. Tropical Conservation Science 4(2): 113-131.
Kanchanasakha, B, Tanhikorn, S., Vinitpornsawan, V., Prayoon, A., and Paengphupha, G. 2010. Status of large mammals in Thailand. Department of National Parks, Wildlife, and Plant Conservation, Bangkok, Thailand.
Karanth, K.K., Nichols, J.D., Hines, J.E., Karanth, K.U. and Christensen, N.L. 2009. Patterns and determinants of mammal species occurrence in India. Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 1189-1200.
Krishnasamy, K. and Shepherd, C.R. 2014. A review of sun bear trade in Sarawak, Malaysia. TRAFFIC Bulletin 26: 37-40.
Langner, A. and Siegert, F. 2009. Spatiotemporal fire occurrence in Borneo over a period of 10 years. Global Change Biology 15: 48-62.
Li, F., Zheng, X., Jiang, X-L. and Chan, B. P. L. 2017. Rediscovery of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Yingjiang County, Yunnan Province, China. Zoological Research 38: 206–207.
Linkie, M., Dinata, Y., Nugroho, A. and Haidir, I.A. 2007. Estimating occupancy of a data deficient mammalian species living in tropical rainforests: sun bears in the Kerinci Seblat region, Sumatra. Biological Conservation 137: 20-27.
Liu, F., McShea, W.J., Garshelis, D.L., Zhu, X., Wang, D. and Shao, L. 2011. Human-wildlife conflicts influence attitudes but not necessarily behaviors: factors driving the poaching of bears in China. Biological Conservation 144: 538-547.
Livingstone, E. and Shepherd, C.R. 2014. Bear farms in Lao PDR expand illegally and fail to conserve wild bears. Oryx 50: 176-184.
Long, V.T., de Vos, J. and Ciochon, R.L. 1996. The fossil mammal fauna of the Lang Trang caves, Vietnam, compared with Southeast Asian fossil and recent mammal faunas: the geographical implications. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 14: 101-109.
Lydekker, R. 1906. On the occurrence of the Bruang in the Tibetan Province. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 2: 997-999.
Lynam, A.J. 2003. A National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar. Myanmar Forest Department, Ministry of Forestry, Yangon, Myanmar.
Margono, B.A., Potapov, P.V., Turubanova, S.A., Stolle, F., Hansen, M.C. and Stole, F. 2014. Primary forest cover loss in Indonesia over 2000–2012. Nature Climate Change 4: 730–735.
Margono, B.A., Turubanova, S., Zhuravleva, I., Potapov, P., Tyukavina, A., Baccini, A., Goetz, S. and Hansen, M.C. 2012. Mapping and monitoring deforestation and forest degradation in Sumatra (Indonesia) using Landsat time series data sets from 1990 to 2010. Environmental Research Letters 7: 1-16.
Mcconkey, K. and Galetti, M. 1999. Seed dispersal by the sun bear Helarctos malayanus in Central Borneo. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15: 237-241.
Meijaard, E. 1999. Human imposed threats to sun bears in Borneo. Ursus 11: 185-192.
Meijaard, E. 2001. Conservation and trade of sun bears in Kalimantan. In: D. F. Williamson and M. J. Phipps (eds), Proceedings of the third international symposium on the trade in bear parts, pp. 26-37. TRAFFIC East Asia, Hong Kong, China.
Meijaard, E. 2004. Craniometric differences among Malayan sun bears (Ursus malayanus); Evolutionary and taxonomic implications. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 52: 665-672.
Meijaard, E., Sheil, D., Nasi, R., Augeri, D., Rosenbaum, B., Iskandar, D., Setyawati, T., Lammertink, M., Rachmatika, I., Wong, A., Soehartono, T., Stanley, S. and O'Brien, T. 2005. Life after logging: Reconciling wildlife conservation and production forestry in Indonesian Borneo. Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Miettinen, J., Shi, C. and Liew, S.C. 2011. Deforestation rates in insular Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2010. Global Change Biology 17(7): 2261-2270. DOI:10.111/j.1365-2486.2011.02398.x.
Nazeri, M., Jusoff, K., Madani, N., Mahmud, A.R., Bahman, A.R. and Kumar, L. 2012. Predictive modeling and mapping of Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) distribution using Maximum Entropy. PloS ONE 7(10).
Nazeri, M., L. Kumar, K. Jusoff, and A.R. Bahaman. 2014. Modeling the potential distribution of sun bear in Krau wildlife reserve, Malaysia. Ecological Informatics 20: 27–32.
Nea, C. and Nong, D. 2006. The conservation of bears in Cambodia. Understanding Asian bears to secure their future, pp. 57-60. Japan Bear Network, Ibaraki, Japan.
Ngoprasert, D., Reed, D.H., Steinmetz, R. and Gale, G.A. 2012. Density estimation of Asian bears using photographic capture–recapture sampling based on chest marks. Ursus 23: 117-133.
Nguyen Xuan Dang. 2006. The current status and conservation of bears in Vietnam. Understanding Asian bears to secure their future., pp. 61-65. Japan Bear Network, Ibaraki, Japan.
Nomura, F., Higashi, S., Ambu, L. and Mohamed, M. 2004. Notes on oil palm plantation use and seasonal spatial relationships of sun bears in Sabah, Malaysia. Ursus 15: 227–231.
Onuma, M., Suzuki, M. and Ohtaishi, N. 2006. Possible conservation units of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak based on variation of mtDNA control region. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 54: 135-139.
Pereira, D., Loh, R. and Bonfiglio, M.B. 2002. The Bear Gall Bladder and Bear Bile Trade in Traditional Chinese Medicine Shops in Malaysia. World Society for the Protection of Animals.
Santiapillai A., and Santiapillai, C. 1996. The status, distribution and conservation of the Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Indonesia. Tigerpaper 23: 11-16.
Sathyakumar, S., Kaul, R., Ashraf, N.V.K., Mookherjee, A., and Menon, V. 2012. National Bear Conservation and Welfare Action Plan. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Wildlife Institute of India, and Wildlife Trust of India, India.
Saw Htun. 2006. The status and conservation of bears in Myanmar. Understanding Asian bears to secure their future, pp. 45-49. Japan Bear Network, Ibaraki, Japan.
Schwarzenberger, F., Fredriksson, G., Schaller, K. and Kolter, L. 2004. Fecal steroid analysis for monitoring reproduction in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus). Theriogenology 62: 1677-1692.
Scotson, L. 2010. Distribution and status of Asiatic black bear and Malayan sun bear in Nam Et Phou Louey National Protected Area, northeast Lao PDR. International Bear News 19: 14-16.
Scotson, L. 2012. Status of Asiatic black bears and sun bears in Xe Pian National Protected Area, Lao PDR. International Bear News 21: 8-11.
Scotson, L. and Brocklehurst, M. 2013. Bear poaching in Lao PDR is exposed as an increasing threat to wild populations. International Bear News 22: 22-23.
Scotson, L. and Hunt, M. 2012. Dismantling the “wall of death”: emergency bear snare-line patrol in the Nam Kan National Protected Area, Lao PDR. International Bear News 21: 17-19.
Sethy, J. and Chauhan, N.S. 2011. Use and trade of bear body parts: Impact and conservation in Arunachal Pradesh state, India. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management 2: 409-415.
Sethy, J. and Chauhan, N.S. 2012. Conservation status of sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Nagaland State, North-East India. Asian Journal of Conservation Biology 1: 103-109.
Sethy, J. and Chauhan, N.S. 2013. Human-sun bears conflict in Mizoram, North East India: impact and conservation management. International Journal of Conservation Science 4: 317-328.
Shepherd, C.R. and Nijman, V. 2008. The trade in bear parts from Myanmar: an illustration of the ineffectiveness of enforcement of international wildlife trade regulations. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 35-42.
Shepherd, C.R. and Shepherd, L.A. 2010. The poaching and trade of Malayan sun bears in peninsular Malaysia: new legislation to provide stronger deterrents. TRAFFIC Bulletin 23: 49-52.
Sodhi, N.S., Koh, L.P., Brook, B.W. and Ng, P.K.L. 2004. Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19(12): 654-660.
Sodhi, N.S., Koh, L.P., Clements, R., Wanger, T.C., Hill, J.K., Hamer, K.C., Clough, Y., Tscharntke, T., Posa, M.R.C. and Lee, T.M. 2010. Conserving Southeast Asian forest biodiversity in human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation 143: 2375-2384.
Steinmetz, R. 2011. Ecology and distribution of sympatric Asiatic black bears and sun bears in the seasonally dry forests of Southeast Asia. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, DC.
Steinmetz, R. and Garshelis, D.L. 2008. Distinguishing Asiatic black bears and sun bears by claw marks on climbed trees. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 814-821.
Steinmetz, R. and Garshelis, D.L. 2010. Estimating ages of bear claw marks in Southeast Asian tropical forests as an aid to population monitoring. Ursus 21: 143-153.
Steinmetz, R., Chutipong, W. and Seauturien, N. 2006. Collaborating to conserve large mammals in Southeast Asia. Conservation Biology 20: 1391–1401.
Steinmetz, R., Garshelis, D.L., Chutipong, W. and Seuaturien, N. 2011. The shared preference niche of sympatric Asiatic black bears and sun bears in a tropical forest mosaic. PloS ONE 6.
Steinmetz, R., Stones, T. and Chan-ard, T. 1999. An ecological survey of habitats, wildlife, and people in Xe Sap National Biodiversity Conservation Area, Saravan Province, Lao PDR. WWF–Thailand Programme Office, Patumthani, Thailand.
Stibig, H.-J., Achard, F., Carboni, S., Raši, R. and Miettinen, J. 2014. Change in tropical forest cover of Southeast Asia from 1990 to 2010. Biogeosciences 11: 247–258.
Tougard, C. 2001. Biogeography and migration routes of large mammal faunas in South-East Asia during the Late Middle Pleistocene: Focus on the fossil and extant faunas from Thailand. Palaeogeography 168: 337-358.
Tumbelaka, L. and Fredriksson, G.M. 2006. The status of sun bears in Indonesia. Understanding Asian bears to secure their future, pp. 73-78. Japan Bear Network, Ibaraki, Japan.
Vinitpornsawan, S., Steinmetz, R. and Kanchanasakha, B. 2006. The status of bears in Thailand. Japan Bear Network, Ibaraki, Japan.
Wen. C. and Wang, D. 2013. Update on the status of sun bears in Yunnan, China. Unpublished report to International Association for Bear Research and Management.
Wicke, B., Sikkema, R., Dornburg, V. and Faaij, A. 2011. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia. Land Use Policy 28: 193-206.
Wong, S.T. 2006. The status of Malayan sun bears in Malaysia. Understanding Asian bears to secure their future, pp. 66-72. Japan Bear Network, Ibaraki, Japan.
Wong, S.T., Servheen, C., Ambu, L. and Norhayati, A. 2005. Impacts of fruit production cycles on Malayan sun bears and bearded pigs in lowland tropical forest of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Journal of Tropical Ecology 21: 627-639.
Wong, S.T., Servheen, C. amd Ambu, L. 2002. Food habits of Malayan sun bears in lowland tropical forests of Borneo. Ursus 13: 127-136.
Wong, S.T., Servheen, C. and Ambu, L. 2004. Home range, movement and activity patterns, and bedding sites of Malayan sun bears, Helarctos malayanus in the rainforest of Borneo. Biological Conservation 119: 168-181.
Wong, W-M. and Linkie, M. 2012. Managing sun bears in a changing tropical landscape. Diversity and 19(7): 700-709.
Wong, W.-M., Leader-Williams, N. and Linkie, M. 2013. Quantifying changes in sun bear distribution and their forest habitat in Sumatra. Animal Conservation 16: 216-223.
Wong, W.-M., Leader-Williams, N. and Linkie, M. 2015. Managing human-sun bear conflict in Sumatran agroforest systems. Human Ecology 43: 255-266.
Wroughton, R.C. 1916. Bombay Natural History Society’s Mammal Survey of India, Burma and Ceylon. Report No. 26. Darjiling District. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 24: 773-782.
|Citation:||Scotson, L., Fredriksson, G., Augeri, D., Cheah, C., Ngoprasert, D. & Wai-Ming, W. 2017. Helarctos malayanus (errata version published in 2018). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T9760A123798233.Downloaded on 22 September 2018.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|