|Scientific Name:||Hapalemur occidentalis|
|Species Authority:||Rumpler, 1975|
Hapalemur griseus (Rumpler, 1975) subspecies occidentalis
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Vulnerable as the species is thought to have undergone a reduction of more than 30% over the past 27 years (assuming a generation length of 9 years) due primarily to a decline in area and quality of habitat within the known range of the species and levels of exploitation due to hunting.
|Range Description:||Following the recent study of Rabarivola et al. (2007), this species is known from the Ankarana and Analamerana region in the north of Madagascar (although see Banks et al. 2007 who did not record it there), and throughout the Sambirano region in the north-west (and the Ampasandava Peninsula). Rabarivola et al. (2007) also found evidence that the range of this species extends further south in the eastern rainforests than previously believed, occurring in Maraonsetra in the north-east at least to Zahamena, east of Lake Aloatra. Whether these populations are contiguous remains to be determined. Animals from the central-western parts of Madagascar, formerly attributed to H. occidentalis, are now provisionally assigned to H. griseus following Rabarivola et al. (2007).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A single group of H. occidentalis was observed during a visit to Ambery, a secondary forest site supporting patches of giant bamboo (Valiha sp.) in the north of Madagascar. The encounter rate was 0.06 groups per km, a useful step towards assessing the population status of this species, because there have been few studies where the local population levels of this species have been estimated from survey methods (Banks et al. 2007).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Little is known about this species. Apparently, it has a preference for forests that contain bamboo or bamboo vines, but it also has been reported from degraded habitats in the Sambirano River valley, as well as in patches of bamboo surrounded by agricultural land (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein). It is reported as being active mainly at night, with groups of six individuals recorded (Mutschler and Tan 2003).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened mainly by the regular burning of its habitat to clear pasture for livestock; charcoal production in the west and mining in Ankarana are also leading to degradation of habitat. Hunting is also a major threat; in Makira, hunting takes place using slingshots, machetes, and firearms (Golden 2005).|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It occurs in four national parks (Masoala, Mananara-Nord, Marojejy, and Zahamena), three strict nature reserves (Tsaratanana, Betampona and Zahamena), and six special reserves (Manongarivo, Analemarana, Ankarana, Anjanaharibé-Sud, Ambatovaky, Marotandrano). However, recent surveys did not encounter any animals in Analamerana or Ankarana, just in a single patch of unprotected forest in the corridor that connects these reserves (Banks et al. 2007).|
Banks, M. A., Ellis, E. R., Antonioand Wright, P. C. 2007. Global population size of a critically endangered lemur, Perrier’s sifaka. Animal Conservation 10: 254-262.
Golden, C. D. 2005. Eaten to endangerment: Mammal hunting and the bushmeat trade in Madagascar’s Makira Forest. Undergraduate Thesis, Harvard University.
Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.
Mutschler, T. and Tan, C. L. 2003. Hapalemur, bamboo or gentle lemurs. In: S. M. Goodman and J. P. Benstead (eds), The Natural History of Madagascar, pp. 1324–1329. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Rabarivola, C., Prosper, P., Zaramody, A., Andriaholinirina, N. and Hauwy, M. 2007. Cytogenetics and taxonomy of the genus Hapalemur. Lemur News 12: 46-49.
Rumpler, Y. 2004. Complementary approaches of cytogenetics and molecular biology to taxonomy and the study of speciation process in lemurs. Evolutionary Anthropology 13: 67-78.
|Citation:||Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. 2008. Hapalemur occidentalis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2013.|
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