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Eudorcas tilonura 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Eudorcas tilonura (Heuglin, 1868)
Common Name(s):
English Heuglin's Gazelle, Eritrean Gazelle
French Gazelle d'Erythrée
Synonym(s):
Eudorcas rufifrons ssp. tilonura (Heuglin, 1868)
Gazella rufifrons ssp. tilonura (Heuglin, 1868)
Taxonomic Source(s): Kingdon, J. and Hoffmann, M. 2013. Eudorcas tilonura. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, pp. 359. Bloomsbury, London, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Eudorcas tilonura occurs east of the river Nile. In the past it has been been treated as conspecific with Thomson’s Gazelle (E. thomsonii), and Mongalla Gazelle (E. albonotata) (Gentry 1972, Kingdon 1997, East 1999) or as a subspecies of E. rufifrons (e.g., Grubb 2005). Groves (2013) considered it as a distinct species and this treatment is provisionally followed here.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-04-20
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M.
Justification:

Heuglin's Gazelle is listed as Endangered under criterion C1 as the total population is estimated to now be 2,500-3,500 (hence <2,500 mature individuals). Also, in the face of ongoing hunting, competition with domestic livestock and habitat degradation, as well as ineffective protection in most of its range, there is an estimated and predicted continuing decline in the population of 20% within two generations (nine years) since the last assessment in 2008.


Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Heuglin's Gazelle ranges east of the Nile between the southern part of the Red Sea Hills in Sudan and the southern foothills of the Ethiopian massif in western Eritrea and north-western Ethiopia (East 1999, Hashim 2013). Currently it is believed to remain present in much of its historical range but in localized patches (Hashim 2013). This is a poorly studied species and very few recent survey data are available. Populations in Eritrea have been severely depleted, with some reportedly still present in the Kerkebet area and possibly also Gash-Setit in the south-west (H. Yohannes, Eritrean Forestry and Wildlife Authority, pers. comm., 2013, Mallon 2014). In Ethiopia the species is still present in Kabra Sheraro National Park (N.P.) in the north-west (H. Pohlstrand, in litt. April 2016) and possibly in Alatish N.P.

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Eritrea; Ethiopia; Sudan
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:East (1999) produced a rough estimate of 3,500-4,000 Heuglin’s Gazelles, and a declining trend in Eritrea, stable or declining in Ethiopia, and unknown in Sudan. Since then, the species has been reduced to small, fragmented populations throughout its range and is declining in Sudan (Hashim 2013). According to East (1999) it was present in 'fair numbers' in parts of Eritrea such as Gash-Setit, but since then its numbers in the country have been greatly depleted and it may number no more than the low hundreds (H. Yohannes, Eritrean Forestry and Wildlife Authority, pers. comm. 2013). There is no recent information from Ethiopia. Given these reported declines in most of its range since 1999, it is likely that numbers now are no more than 2,500-3,500 at best. Density in Dinder N.P. was estimated at 1/km² (Hashim 1998).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1750-2450Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Heuglin's Gazelle inhabits dry grassland, and thorn bushland up to 1,400 m (Yalden et al. 1996).
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):4.3

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This gazelle is hunted for meat but the offtake level is unknown.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Hunting and habitat degradation due to overgrazing, clearance of scrub, cutting of shade trees, drought, and agricultural encroachment are the main threats to this species (East 1999, Hashim 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species occurs in Kabrar Sheraro N.P. and possibly also in Alatish N.P. (Ethiopia); Dinder N.P. in Sudan; and Gash Setit wildlife sanctuary in Eritrea (however the latter site has not been formally gazetted). East (1999) noted that even at that time, protection in Dinder N.P. was ineffective as the open habitats preferred by the species were utilised intensively in the dry season by camel herders who cut down the shade trees to feed their livestock. A small number of captive animals are kept at Al Wabra in Qatar.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:Yes
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Gentry, A.W. 1972. Genus Gazella. In: J. Meester & H.W. Setzer (eds), The Mammals of Africa: An Identification Manual, pp. 85-93. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C, USA.

Groves, C.P. 2013. Genus Eudorcas Ring-horned gazelles. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), Mammals of Africa. VI. Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer, and Bovids, pp. 356-357. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder (ed.), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

Grubb, P. 2005. Order Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Hashim, I. 2013. Eudorcas tilonura Heuglin's Gazelle. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. VI. Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer, and Bovids, pp. 359-361. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.

Hashim, I.M. 1998. Status, abundance and distribution of four endangered wildlife species in Eastern Sudan . Gnusletter 17(2): 12-16.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Mallon, D. 2014. Eritrea Reconnaissance 2013: Trip report. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group and Zoo Landau in der Pfalz.

Yalden, D.W., Largen, M.J., Koch, D. and Hillman, J.C. 1996. Catalogue of the mammals of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 7. Revised checklist, zoogeography and conservation. Tropical Zoology 9: 73-164.


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Eudorcas tilonura. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T8991A50188182. . Downloaded on 20 September 2017.
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