|Scientific Name:||Gazella subgutturosa (Güldenstädt, 1780)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Recent research has shown that Arabian Sand Gazelle (G. s. marica) is genetically distinct and and is now regarded as a separate species Gazella marica (Wacher et al. 2010).
Three further subspecies have been recognized: G. s. hilleriana; G. s. yarkandensis; and the nominate form, Persian Goitered Gazelle G. s. subgutturosa (Kingswood and Blank 1996, Grubb 2005). However most of these subspecies have not been verified by genetic analysis. Only the species is assessed here.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2acd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group|
Goitered Gazelle is listed as Vulnerable under criterion A2 because of ongoing declines due to poaching, habitat degradation from overgrazing, competition with livestock and industrial and commercial development. The decline is estimated to have exceeded 30% in the last 14 years (three generations).
Some populations in protected areas (e.g., in Azerbaijan and Iran) are stable or possibly increasing. However, other populations throughout the range are subject to several threats and declines are widely reported. The population in Turkmenistan has almost disappeared in recent years. The largest population in Kazakhstan, formerly numbering ca 20,000, has also drastically declined in the last few years. In Mongolia, a substantial proportion of the known global population remained until recently, but heavy poaching has wiped out almost all the large herds and cut the numbers by well over 50%.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species occurs from Mongolia and northwest China through Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and marginally in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) to Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan and also the south Caucasus (Mallon and Kingswood 2001). Their historical range has contracted greatly.|
Goitered Gazelle remains widespread in Mongolia, the Tarim Basin region of Xinjiang, China, and parts of Kazkhstan. There is a substantial population in Shirvan N.R. Azerbaijan, and a small population in the north of the country. Animals from Shirvan have recently been reintroduced to four sites in Azerbaijan and one site in south-east Georgia.
In Iran, Goitered Gazelles are almost entirely restricted to protected areas. Distribution in Pakistan was limited to the Chagai Desert and adjoining areas but range and numbers have been drastically reduced.
Populations in the Arabian Peninsula and southeast Turkey are now considered to be G. marica. The boundary between the two species has not been determined with accuracy in Iraq.
Native:Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; China; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Pakistan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
Regionally extinct:Armenia; Georgia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Numbers were estimated at 120,000-140,000 in Mallon and Kingswood (2001), but populations throughout the range have decreased since then and are subject to continuing illegal hunting and habitat loss. The former population in Turkmenistan has virtually disappeared. Numbers in Azerbaijan are 4,000-6,000. In Iran, the 2015 estimate by the Department of the Environment numbers was ca 20,000, virtually all in protected areas. Mongolia was thought to contain the largest remaining population of the species (estimated at 60,000 in the early 1990s; Amgalan 1995), so holding an estimated 40-50% of the global population (Lhagvasuren et al. 2001). However, this population has been heavily reduced by poaching and this decline is continuing. Drastically reduced in Pakistan, and may be on the verge of extinction there. Poaching is still a factor across the range and numbers are continuing to decline overall.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This gazelle inhabits a wide range of semi-desert and desert habitats. It ascends into foothills and penetrates mountain valleys in Central Asia, to altitudes of 2,700 m in Mongolia (Bannikov 1954). Goitered Gazelles make seasonal movements in search of pasture and water and in northern parts of the range avoid areas of heavy snow in winter.|
|Generation Length (years):||4.7|
|Use and Trade:||Hunting for gazelle skins, meat, and trophy horns is common, and poorly regulated. Legal trophy hunting occurs in Iran.|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats to this species are illegal hunting (for meat and to a lesser extent for trophies) and habitat loss (due to economic development, conversion to agriculture, increasing numbers of domestic livestock). In Central Asia the species is susceptible to the effects of severe winter weather. Barriers in the form of linear infrastructure and fences are an emerging threat in Central Asia.|
|Conservation Actions:||Goitered Gazelle is legally protected in most of its range states, although enforcement is not universally effective. The species occurs in many protected areas across its range. It has been reintroduced to four sites in Azerbaijan and one site in Georgia (Vashlovani N.P.). Reintroductions have also occurred in Turkmenistan. There is a breeding centre near Bukhara in Uzbekistan.|
Amgalan, L. 1995. Distribution and Population Dynamics of Goitered Gazelle in Mongolia.
Bannikov, A. G. 1954. Mammals of the Mongolian People's Republic. Nauka, Moscow, Russia.
Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder (ed.), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).
Kingswood, S.C. and Blank, D.A. 1996. Gazella subgutturosa. Mammalian Species 518: 1-10.
Lhagvasuren, B., Dulamtseren, S. and Amgalan, L. 2001. Mongolia. In: D. P. Mallon and S. C. Kingswood (eds), Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans, pp. 159-167. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Mallon, D.P. and Kingswood, S.C. 2001. Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Wacher, T., Wronski, T., Hammond, R.L., Winney, B., Blacket, M.J., Hundertmark, K.J., Mohammed, O.B., Omer, Sa., Macasero, W., Lerp, H., Plath, M. and Bleidorn, C. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences reveals polyphyly in the goitred gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa). Conservation Genetics 12: 827–831.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Gazella subgutturosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T8976A50187422.Downloaded on 20 September 2017.|
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