|Scientific Name:||Eudorcas rufifrons|
|Species Authority:||(Gray, 1846)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
Gazella rufifrons Gray, 1846
|Taxonomic Notes:||The number of subspecies recognized has varied in the past depending on whether this species was treated as conspecific with related forms, namely the Thomson’s Gazelle E. thomsonii, and the Mongalla Gazelle E. albonotata (Gentry 1972, Kingdon 1997, East 1999). Furthermore, the form tilonura, from east of the Nile River, is either considered a subspecies of E. rufifrons (e.g., Grubb 2005), or a distinct species (Groves in press). This treatment follows Grubb (2005), with E. rufifrons occurring west of the Nile River, except for the subspecies E. r. tilonura.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group|
|Reviewer/s:||Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)|
Red-fronted Gazelle populations have been reduced to scattered remnants over most of its range by illegal hunting, competition with domestic livestock and habitat degradation, and this reduction is estimated to be greater than 30% over the last three generations (15-18 years). Some populations in protected areas have increased, but the majority of the population resides outside of protected areas. If present trends continue, the Red-fronted Gazelle’s distribution and numbers will probably decline further until its status becomes Endangered or Critically Endangered, e.g., at present less than 10% of its total numbers occur in populations which are known to be stable or increasing.
|Range Description:||This species formerly occurred throughout dry grasslands and sahelian bushlands from Mauritania and northern Senegal to the western side of the Nile River in Sudan, with Heuglin's Gazelle (E. r. tilonura) ten ranging east of the Nile between the southern part of the Red Sea hills in Sudan and the southern foothills of the Ethiopian massif in western Eritrea and north-western Ethiopia (East 1999; Scholte and Hashim in press; Hashim in press). It is likely to be extinct in Ghana.|
Native:Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Sudan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The available information on this species’ numbers is based mainly on informed guesses. East (1999) produced an estimated total population of about 25,000, which includes an estimated 3,500-4,000 Heuglin’s Gazelles. At the time of East's (1999) estimate, large numbers were known to survive in Niger (ca, 4,000) and Mali (ca. 3,000). Population trends are generally downwards.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Formerly widespread in the Sahel zone in the sahelian grasslands, savannas and savanna woodlands, and shrubland. They range up to 1,400 m in the savannas of north-western Ethiopia (Yalden et al. 1996). It is able to adapt to human occupation of its habitat to some extent, e.g., it is known to re-occupy fallow land if sufficient cover is available. It occurs locally in small to moderate numbers in areas of largely unexploited rangeland. They are known to make seasonal movements, although these are increasingly restricted by human settlement.|
|Major Threat(s):||Red-fronted Gazelle populations have been reduced to scattered remnants over most of its range by illegal hunting, competition with domestic livestock, and habitat degradation resulting from drought, overgrazing of livestock and clearance of land for agriculture.|
Approximately 15% of the total population of this species occurs in protected areas (East 1999), in particular W N.P. (Niger, Burkina Faso, Benin), Waza N.P. (Cameroon) and Zakouma N.P. (Chad) (East 1999; Scholte and Hashim in press). Heuglin's Gazelle is protected in Dinder N.P. in Sudan, but East (1999) noted that it does not receive effective protection here, as the sites that it prefers are utilized intensively by camel herders who trespass into the park in the dry season and destroy the gazelle’s favourite shade trees to feed their camels and goats.
The extension of effective protection and management to additional populations besides those in areas such as Zakouma, Waza and Dinder National Parks is necessary. Development and implementation of land use plans which allow for the needs of wildlife outside protected areas in countries such as Chad and Sudan would also be of major benefit to many of the remaining populations of this species (East 1999).
A limited number of Red-fronted Gazelles are maintained in captivity, but without formal breeding programmes.
East, R. 1999. African Antelope Database 1999. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Gentry, A. W. 1972. Genus Gazella. In: J. Meester and H. W. Setzer (eds), The Mammals of Africa: An Identification Manual, pp. 85-93. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C, USA.
Groves, C. P. In press. Genus Eudorcas. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.
Hashim, I. In press. Eudorcas tilonura. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press Natural World, San Diego, California, USA.
Scholte, P. and Hashim, I. In press. Eudorcas rufifrons. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Yalden, D. W., Largen, M. J., Kock, D. and Hillman, J. C. 1996. Catalogue of the Mammals of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7. Revised Checklist, zoogeography and conservation. Tropical Zoology 9(1): 73-164.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group 2008. Eudorcas rufifrons. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 March 2014.|
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