|Scientific Name:||Gazella dorcas|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Several subspecies have been described, based on phenotypic variation, but the validity of these subspecies awaits further investigation using molecular techniques.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group|
|Reviewer(s):||Mallon, D.P. & Chardonnet, P. (Antelope Red List Authority)|
Numbers have been in decline for some time mainly due to hunting, and these declines have worsened with more intensive motorized hunting (East 1999; Mallon and Kingswood 2001; Lafontaine et al. 2006). Habitat degradation resulting from overgrazing by livestock and drought have also had negative impacts. Over the whole range, these declines are continuing and are estimated to have exceeded 30% over three generations (18 years, 1988 to 2006).
|Range Description:||Formerly occurred over the entire Sahelo-Saharan region, from the Mediterranean to the southern Sahel and from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, and extending into southern Israel, Syria and Jordan (marginal occurrence).
Dorcas Gazelle became extinct in Senegal (where they probably only occurred as a vagrant or seasonal visitor; East 1999), and were subsequently reintroduced to protected areas although there is no recent information on their status; they are possibly extinct in Nigeria, and their current status in Burkina Faso is unclear (Lafontaine et al. 2005).
Native:Algeria; Burkina Faso; Chad; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Israel; Jordan; Libya; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Niger; Somalia; Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Western Sahara; Yemen
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
East (1999) compiled figures that suggested a sub-Saharan population of 35,000 to 40,000 and a total population somewhere in the tens of thousands. Numbers were declining generally, except where hunting pressure was low (East 1999).
Lafontaine et al. (2005) report recent declines in almost all range states and say it has disappeared from many regions and is seriously reduced in numbers where it survives. The largest current populations are in Chad (especially in the Ouadi Rimé-Ouadi Achim Faunal Reserve), Niger (Aïr-Ténéré National Nature Reserve and the Termit Massif-TinToumma), and the horn countries (Scholte and Hashim in press, and references therein). In Morocco, the wild population is estimated at 800- 2,000 individuals (Cuzin et al. in press). The population in Israel was estimated at >2,000 and stable (Clark and Frankenberg 2001).
|Habitat and Ecology:||Inhabits a wide range of arid and semi-arid habitats, but avoids extensive areas of dunes and hyperarid areas (Cuzin 2003; Lafontaine et al. 2005).|
|Major Threat(s):||The major threats include overhunting, and habitat degradation due to overgrazing by livestock and drought.|
Listed on CMS Appendix I and included in the CMS Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes Action Plan. Legally protected or partially so in several range states. Dorcas Gazelle occur in many protected areas throughout their range, including: M'Sabih Talâa Reserve and El Kheng Reserve (Morocco); Tassili and Ahaggar National Parks (Algeria); Bou-Hedma, Sidi Toui, Dghoumes, Oued Dekouk and Djebil National Parks (Tunisia); New Hisha Nature Reserve, Sabratha, Surman and El-Kouf National Park (Libya); Elba National Park and Saint Catherine Protectorate (Egypt); Banc d'Arguin National Park (Mauritania); Ouadi Rimé - Ouadi Achim Reserve (Chad); and Mille-Sardo Wildlife Reserve (Ethiopia) (Scholte and Hashim in press). In Libya, the New Hisha Nature Reserve, Sabratha, and Surman populations are enclosed, whereas the El-Kouf National Park is free-living (T. Jdeidi pers. comm.). There are several other populations in protected areas in Morocco, but the populations listed above (M'Sabih Talâa Reserve and El Kheng Reserve) are particularly valuable as they are known to be of local origin (Cuzin et al. in press).
Dorcas Gazelle do well in captivity, and are particularly common in several privately owned, captive collections in the Middle East (most originating from Egypt, the horn of Africa and Sudan) (Scholte and Hashim in press). Additionally, there is a well-managed captive population in Almeria (Spain), originating from Western Saharan stock.
Listed in CITES Appendix III (Algeria, Tunisia).
Clark, B. and Frankenberg, E. 2001. Chapter 19. Israel. In: D. P. Mallon S. C. Kingswood (ed.), Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans., pp. 107-111. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Cuzin, F. 2003. Les grands mammifères du Maroc méridional (Haut Atlas, Anti Atlas et Sahara): Distribution, Ecologie et Conservation. Ph.D. Thesis, Laboratoire de Biogéographie et Ecologie des Vertèbrés, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Université Montpellier II.
Cuzin, F., Sehhar, E. A. and Wacher, T. 2007. Etude pour l?élaboration de lignes directrices et d?un plan d?action stratégique pour la conservation des ongulés au Maroc. Haut Commissariat aux Eaux et Forêts et à la Lutte Contre le Désertification (HEFLCD), Projet de Gestion des Aires Protégées (PGAP) et Banque Mondiale, Global Environment Facility (GEF). Two volumes.
East, R. 1999. African Antelope Database 1999. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Lafontaine, R.-M., Beudels-Jamar, R. C., Devillers, P. and Wacher, T. 2005. Gazella dorcas. In: R. C. Beudels, P. Devillers, R. -M. Lafontaine, J. Devillers-Terschuren, and M. -O. Beudels (eds), Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes. Status and Perspectives. Report on the conservation status of the six Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes. CMS SSA Concerted Action. 2nd edition. CMS Technical Series Publication N°11, 2005.. UNEP/CMS Secretariat, Bonn, Germany.
Scholte, P. and Hashim, I. In press. Gazella dorcas. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group 2008. Gazella dorcas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 August 2014.|
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