|Scientific Name:||Eulemur collaris|
|Species Authority:||(É. Geoffroy, 1812)|
Eulemur fulvus (É. Geoffroy, 1817) subspecies collaris
|Taxonomic Notes:||Formerly considered a subspecies of Eulemur fulvus, but later raised to species level (Groves 2001).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.|
Listed as Endangered as the species is suspected to have undergone a population decline of ≥50% over a period of 24 years (three generations), due primarily to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat caused by charcoal production and slash-and-burn agriculture, and exploitation through unsustainable levels of hunting. Ilmenite mining is also threatening this species. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible. The population is predicted to decline in the future at the same rate over three generations (24 years).
This lemur is found in southeastern Madagascar from the southern limits of the Ambatotsirongorongo transitional forest south-west of Tolagnaro (J. Razafindramanana, pers. comm.) north to the Mananara River. The western limits of the range are the forests of the Kalambatritra region. The Mananara River serves as a boundary between this species and E. cinereiceps, except for isolated populations at Midongy du Sud National Park (Irwin et al. 2005) and at Vohipaho, near Vangaindrano (S.E. Johnson, pers. comm.). There are also small populations of this species in littoral forest fragments at the Mandena Conservation Zone, Sainte Luce Conservation zone and Sainte-Luce Private Reserve (Donati et al. 2011). Ranges from sea level to 1,875 m.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
In littoral forest fragments densities of this species are high (74 to 139 individuals/km2)(Ganzhorn et al. 2007, T. Nguyen pers. comm.). In Midongy du Sud, densities were recorded at 14 individuals/km2 (Irwin et al. 2005). In Andoahela National Park and Tsitongambarika densities recorded are respectively 8 and 11 individuals/km2 (G. Donati pers. comm.).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The Collared Brown Lemurs are found in wet forest habitats and they have been studied in the littoral forest fragments of Sainte Luce and Mandena (Donati et al. 2011). This lemur is largely frugivorous with minor proportions of flowers and young leaves in the diet during the year (120 plants species from 45 families, Donati et al. 2007). The most important plant species included in the diet are Syzigium spp., Dypsis spp., and Uapaca spp. Collared lemurs are cathemeral animals, remaining active both day and night throughout the year and their activity is strongly influenced by nocturnal luminosity and photoperiodic variations (Donati and Borgognini-Tarli 2006). In littoral forest fragments ranging areas vary from 20 to 100 hectares depending on habitat type and social groups tend to be multi-male/multi-female with average group size from 2 to 17 depending on habitat degradation (Donati et al. 2011). Groups can include as much as 22 individuals in rainforest areas (G. Donati pers. comm). Females give birth in September/October after a gestation of about 120 days and twins are not rare (G. Donati pers. comm).
|Use and Trade:||
Illegal hunting for food by using traps seems to be a major problem for this species in some areas (Bollen and Donati 2006). The species is also captured for the local pet trade.
The principal threat to the survival of E. collaris is habitat destruction, due to charcoal production and slash-and-burn agriculture (Bollen and Donati 2006). It is also widely hunted for food and trapped occasionally for the local pet trade. Ilmenite mining is also threatening the remaining populations in littoral forest fragments.
This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It is reported to occur in two national parks (Andohahela and Midongy du Sud), the Kalambatritra Special Reserve, The Tsitongambarika Protected Area, Mandena and Sainte Luce Conservation Zones, and Sainte Luce Private Reserve. An introduced population of E. collaris/E. rufifrons hybrids is present in the Berenty Private Reserve (Donati et al. 2009). As of 2009, there were 37 Collared Brown Lemurs reported in zoological collections in Europe and North America (ISIS 2009).
Bollen, A. and Donati, G. 2006. Conservation status of the littoral forest of south-eastern Madagascar: a review. Oryx 40(1): 1-10.
Donati G., Baldi N., Morelli V., Ganzhorn J.U., Borgognini Tarli S.M. 2009. Proximate cues and ultimate determinants of brown lemur cathemerality. Animal Behaviour 77: 317-325.
Donati G., Bollen A, Borgognini Tarli S.M., Ganzhorn J.U. 2007. Feeding over the 24-hour cycle: dietary flexibility of cathemeral collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris). Behavioural Ecology & Sociobiology 61: 1237-1251.
Donati G. & Borgognini Tarli S.M. 2006. The influence of abiotic factors on cathemerality: the case of Eulemur fulvus collaris in the littoral forest of Madagascar. Folia Primatologica 77(1-2): 104-122.
Donati G., Kesch K., Ndremifidy K., Schmidt S.L., Ramanamanjato J.B., Borgognini Tarli S.M., Ganzhorn J.U. 2011. Better few than hungry: flexible feeding ecology of collared lemurs Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments. PLoS One 6(5).
Ganzhorn J.U., Andrianasolo T., Andrianjazalahatra T., Donati G., Fietz J., Norscia I., Rakotondranary J., Rakotondratsima B.M., Ralison J., Ramarokoto R., Randriamanga S., Rasarimanana S., Rakotosamimanana B., Ramanamanjato J.B., Randria G., Rasolofoharivelo T., Razanahoera-Rakotomalala M., Schmid J., Sommer S. 2007. Lemurs in evergreen littoral forest fragments of different size and degrees of degradation. In: Ganzhorn J.U., Goodman S.M., Vincelette M. (ed.), Biodiversity, Ecology and Conservation of the Littoral Ecosystems of South-eastern Madagascar, pp. 223-236. Smithsonian Institution Press.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Irwin, M. T., Johnson, S. E. and Wright, P. C. 2005. The state of lemur conservation in Southeastern Madagascar: Population and habitat assessments for diurnal lemurs using surveys, satellite imagery and GIS. Oryx 39: 204–218.
ISIS. 2009. International Species Information System. Apple Valley, MN Available at: www.isis.org. (Accessed: 01.01.2009).
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).
|Citation:||Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Eulemur collaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 July 2015.|
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