|Scientific Name:||Eulemur coronatus|
|Species Authority:||(Gray, 1842)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Generic synonym = Lemur.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A3cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Molur, S. & Schwitzer, C.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.|
A population reduction of ≥50% is suspected to be met in the future over a time period of 24 years (three generations). This is based on a continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species occurs in extreme northern Madagascar. It is the only species found on the Cap d’Ambre Peninsula, the most northerly point on the island. From there its range extends south, east of the Mahavavy River beyond Ambilobe. The eastern part of its range extends south in Daraina to the Manambato River. Individuals are also found just north of Bemarivo River. Ranges from sea-level to 1,400 m.|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1400|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Mathew Banks and James Herrera (pers. comm. 2013) estimate the following population densities at the following sites: Ambatovazaha - 39.74 individuals/km²; Ampasimaty - 18.48 individuals/km²; Ampondrabe - 67.64 individuals/km²; Andampibe - 34.67 individuals/km²; Andrafiambany - 38.92 individuals/km²; Madiromasina - 50.62 individuals/km²; Mahanoro - 35.98 individuals/km²; Antsahabe – 37.05 individuals/km². The overall mean of densities estimated at each site separately is 29.81 individuals/km². These results were generated from using a global detection probability, estimated from all the data within the truncation distance, not for each site separately.
This species is sympatric with E. sanfordi although, unlike the latter, it lives in most patches of forest throughout its range and will accept more open, drier habitat. Mixed-species associations are reported during the wet season months when food resources are more readily available.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species prefers semi-deciduous dry lowland and mid-altitude forest, but may be found in practically all forest types from sea level to 1400 m, including high-altitude tropical moist forest and wooded savannah, as well as in agricultural areas. It is reported to inhabit all levels of the forest, but is most likely to be found in lianas, thick cover and on terminal branches. It also readily descends to the ground to travel, or to eat fallen fruit or lick earth (Petter et al. 1977). It can even be seen delicately moving through some of the knife-edged karst tsingys that occur within its range, especially in the Ankarana region. The diet consists mainly of fruits, supplemented with young leaves, flowers, and pollen; insects and soil are also eaten on occasion. The animals tend to rely heavily on 10–20% of the nearly 100 plant species it exploits, and feeds more on flowers during the dry season than at other times of the year. This species is known to raid farms and plantations. Females have a 34 day reproductive cycle, with the vulva being closed when not in oestrus. In Ankarana and Montagne d' Ambre mating occurs in late May and early June, and births take place from mid-September through October. The gestation period is 125 days (Kappeler 1987). One or two young are born, each weighing approximately 60 grams. Weaning occurs at 6–7 months. Both males and females reach sexual maturity at about 20 months. Home range size is approximately 10–15 ha (Freed 1996). Group size does not appear to differ significantly between habitat types, the average group being five or six and the maximum size about 15 individuals. Large multi-male / multi-female groups often split into foraging subgroups of 2–4 individuals. The Crowned Lemur is one of only three Eulemur species that show features of female dominance (Kappeler 1993).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||8|
|Use and Trade:||This species is hunted for food and captured for the local pet trade.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened mainly by habitat loss due to slash-and-burn agriculture, charcoal production, mining for sapphires and gold, and illegal logging. The species is also hunted for food, and captured for the local pet trade (especially in the Antsiranana region). They continue as well to be hunted for food and persecuted for their occasional raids on crops. Indeed, hunting has lately become a major problem in the Daraina area, where a number of E. coronatus were recently killed to serve a luxury restaurant trade in Sambava (Conservation International 2010).|
This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. E. coronatus is known to occur in two national parks (Ankarana and Montagne d' Ambre), two special reserves (Analamerana and Forêt d' Ambre) and in the forests of Daraina (Loky-Manambato Protected Area). As of 2009, there were approximately 100 Crowned Lemurs in zoological collections worldwide (ISIS 2009).
Conservation International Southern African Hotspots Programme and South Africa National Biodiversity Institute. 2010. Ecosystem profile: Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Biodiversity Hotspots. Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund, Cape Town.
Freed, B. Z. 1996. Co-occurrence among crowned lemurs (Lemur coronatus) and Sanford’s lemur (Lemur fulvus sanfordi) of Madagascar. Ph.D. Thesis, Washington University.
ISIS. 2009. International Species Information System. Apple Valley, MN Available at: www.isis.org. (Accessed: 01.01.2009).
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).
Kappeler, P.M. 1987. Reproduction in the crowned lemur (Lemur coronatus) in captivity. American Journal of Primatology 12: 497-503.
Kappeler, P.M. 1993. Variation in social structure: the effects of sex and kinship on social interactions in three lemur species. Ethology 93: 125-145.
Petter, J.J., Albignac, R. and Rumpler, Y. 1977. Mammiferes lemuriens (Primate prosimiens). Faune de Madagascar No. 44. ORSTOM-CNRS, Paris.
|Citation:||Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Eulemur coronatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T8199A16117225. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.|
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