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Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. major 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. major (Blyth, 1869)
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English Western Hartebeest
Taxonomic Notes: Western Hartebeest or Kanki (A. b. major) is one of eight subspecies of Hartebeest, following Gosling and Capellini (2013). The others being: Bubal Hartebeest (A. b. buselaphus); Lichtenstein's Hartebeest (A. b. lichtensteinii); Coke's Hartebeest or Kongoni (A. b. cokii); Tora Hartebeest (A. b. tora); Swayne's Hartebeest or Korkay (A. b. swaynei); Lelwel Hartebeest (A. b. lelwel); and Red Hartebeest (A. b. caama).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-07-26
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Cooke, R.
Justification:
Western Hartebeest is listed as Vulnerable with a suspected decline across its range of greater than 30% over the past 23 years (three generations). Hunting levels and habitat loss are high, and populations even within protected areas (such as Comoé National Park (N.P.) and Niokolo Koba N.P.) have undergone major declines.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Western Hartebeest once ranged from Senegal eastwards to western Central African Republic and south-west Chad, although they have always been marginal in these last two countries. They have disappeared from much of their former range in this region, surviving mainly in and around protected areas; they no longer occur in The Gambia (though migrants may enter from Senegal) (East 1999, Gosling and Capellini 2013).

For the distribution map, see the parent species assessment: Alcelaphus buselaphus.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Benin; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Côte d'Ivoire; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Mali; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Togo
Regionally extinct:
Gambia
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:East (1999) estimated the population of Western Hartebeest at 36,000 individuals (correcting for under-counting bias in aerial surveys) and declining nearly everywhere. Densities of Western Hartebeest range from 0.01 to 1.66/km² (Gosling and Capellini 2013, and references therein).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:More tolerant of woodland areas and high grass than other alcelaphines, Hartebeest (including Western Hartebeest) prefer the edge to the middle of open plains (Estes 1991, Gosling and Capellini 2013) and thus appear to be an edge or ecotone species (Booth 1985), generally avoiding more closed woodland. Western Hartebeest utilise grassland clearings within the wooded savanna of West Africa (Gosling and Capellini 2013).
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):7.5

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Hartebeest (including Western Hartebeest) are hunted for food and sport and are particularly valued for their high-quality meat (Gosling and Capellini 2013).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to Hartebeest in general, and including Western Hartebeest, are agro-pastoral development and hunting.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: More than 95% of the global population of Western Hartebeest was found in protected areas (East 1999). Areas holding important populations of Western Hartebeest include: Niokolo-Koba (Senegal) - although this population declined by half in the 1990s alone and has declined further since, Comoé N. P. (Côte d’Ivoire) - although this population declined by 60% between 1984 and 1998 (Fischer and Linsenmair 2001), Nazinga and Diefoula (Burkina Faso), Mole (Ghana), Pendjari (Benin) and the national parks and hunting zones of North Province (Cameroon).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):91-100
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

Booth, V. R. 1985. Some Notes on Lichtenstein Hartebeest, Alcelaphus lichtensteini (Peters). South African Journal of Zoology 20: 57-60.

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores and Primates. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA.

Fischer, F. and Linsenmair, K. E. 2001. Decreases in ungulate population densities. Examples from the Comoe National Park, Ivory Coast. Biological Conservation 101: 131-135.

Gosling, L.M. and Capellini, I. 2013. Alcelaphus buselaphus Hartebeest. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, pp. 511-526. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. major. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T817A50181578. . Downloaded on 16 December 2017.
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