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Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. lelwel 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. lelwel (Heuglin, 1877)
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English Lelwel Hartebeest
Taxonomic Notes: Lelwel Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel) is one of eight subspecies of Hartebeest, following Gosling and Capellini (2013). The others being: Bubal Hartebeest (A. b. buselaphus); Western Hartebeest or Kanki (A. b. major); Coke's Hartebeest or Kongoni (A. b. cokii); Tora Hartebeest (A. b. tora); Swayne's Hartebeest or Korkay (A. b. swaynei); Lichtenstein's Hartebeest (A. b. lichtensteinii); and Red Hartebeest (A. b. caama). Intergrade populations occur between lelwel and cokii.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2acd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-07-26
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Cooke, R.
Justification:
Numbers of Lelwel Hartebeest have declined from more than 285,000 in the 1980s to less than 70,000 today. Recent reports from Sudan and South Sudan also confirm that numbers there have declined drastically from numbers recorded in the 1980s. Based on this, a decline exceeding 50% over the past 23 years (three generations) seems easily met, and therefore Lelwel Hartebeest is listed as Endangered.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Lelwel Hartebeest was originally distributed from southeast Chad, southwest Sudan, South Sudan into southwest Ethiopia, and south to northeast Democratic Republic of Congo, northwest Kenya, Uganda, and extreme northwest Tanzania (East 1999, Gosling and Capellini 2013). This subspecies is Extinct in Kenya (East 1999) and is severely reduced elsewhere mainly due to hunting.

For the distribution map, see the parent species assessment: Alcelaphus buselaphus.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Central African Republic; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Ethiopia; South Sudan; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda
Regionally extinct:
Kenya
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:East (1999) estimated the population of Lelwel Hartebeest at 70,000 individuals. Therefore this subspecies may have undergone a major decline since the 1980s, when its total numbers were estimated to be >285,000, mainly in Central African Republic and southern Sudan (East 1999). Recent survey work conducted in the dry season estimated totals of 1,070 and 115 animals for Southern National Park (N.P.) and Boma N.P., respectively (Fay et al. 2007); the latter is a significant decline from the more than 50,000 animals estimated in the dry season of 1980 by Fryxell (1980).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:More tolerant of woodland areas and high grass than other alcelaphines, Hartebeest (including Lelwel Hartebeest) prefer the edge to the middle of open plains (Estes 1991, Gosling and Capellini 2013) and thus appear to be an edge or ecotone species (Booth 1985), generally avoiding more closed woodland.
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):7.5

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Hartebeest (including Lelwel Hartebeest) are hunted for food and sport and are particularly valued for their high-quality meat (Gosling and Capellini 2013).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to Hartebeest in general, and including Lelwel Hartebeest, are agro-pastoral development and hunting.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Around 40% of the global population of Lelwel Hartebeest is located in protected areas (East 1999). Areas holding important populations of Lelwel Hartebeest include: Zakouma and eastern Salamat (Chad), Manovo-Gounda-St. Floris and Sangba (Central African Republic), Garamba (Congo-Kinshasa), Mago-Murule (Ethiopia) and Murchison Falls (Uganda). Lelwel Hartebeest are held in captivity (often under the taxonomic name A. b. jacksonii).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):31-40
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

Booth, V. R. 1985. Some Notes on Lichtenstein Hartebeest, Alcelaphus lichtensteini (Peters). South African Journal of Zoology 20: 57-60.

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores and Primates. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA.

Fay, M., Elkan, P., Marjan, M. and Grossman, F. 2007. Aerial Surveys of Wildlife, Livestock, and Human Activity in and around Existing and Proposed Protected Areas of Southern Sudan, Dry Season 2007. WCS – Southern Sudan Technical Report.

Fryxell, J. 1980. Preliminary report on an aerial survey of the Boma National Park region. New York Zoogical Society.

Gosling, L.M. and Capellini, I. 2013. Alcelaphus buselaphus Hartebeest. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, pp. 511-526. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. lelwel. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T816A50181544. . Downloaded on 22 October 2017.
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