|Scientific Name:||Etheostoma fonticola|
|Species Authority:||(Jordan & Gilbert, 1886)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/s:||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Endangered because it occurs in only two locations, has an extent of occurrence of less than 100 sq km and area of occupancy of approximately 10 sq km, and faces declines in habitat quality/quantity caused by habitat dewatering and non-native species.
|Range Description:||This darter is endemic to the upper San Marcos and Comal rivers in central Texas (Hubbs et al. 2008). San Marcos and Comal rivers are spring-fed streams deriving from the Edwards Aquifer. The original population in the Comal River was extirpated in the mid-1950s when Comal Springs ceased to flow (Hubbs et al. 2008). A population from San Marcos was reintroduced into Comal Springs during the early 1970s (Hubbs et al. 2008).
During periods of low flows, the National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center in San Marcos, Texas, serves as a refugium (Bonner and McDonald 2005).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by two occurrences.
Population in the San Marcos River watershed was estimated in the 1970s at 103,000 (Schenck and Whiteside 1976). Linam et al. (1993) estimated the upper Comal River population at 168,078 individuals (Linam et al. 1993).
USFWS (1990) categorized the status as "unknown." Based on USFWS (1996), trend must be regarded as unknown but possibly declining.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes vegetated springs, pools, and runs of effluent rivers (Page and Burr 2011). This fish inhabits springs and spring-fed streams in dense beds of aquatic plants (particularly filamentous algae) growing close to bottom, which is normally mucky. It prefers clear, quiet, warm backwaters. Eggs are apparently laid on dead leaves, twigs, rocks, algae, or similar objects.|
Primary threats include:
Jelks et al. (2008) categorized this species as Endangered, due to:
|Conservation Actions:||Better information on current distribution, abundance, and trend is needed. Important aquifers need to be identified and protected.|
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland.
Bart, H.L., Jr. and Page, L.M. 1992. The influence of size and phylogeny on life history variation in North American percids. In: R.L. Mayden (ed.), Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes, pp. 553-572. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.
Campbell, L. 1995. Endangered and Threatened Animals of Texas: Their Life History and Management. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Endangered Resources Branch, Austin, Texas.
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hubbs, C. 1985. Darter reproductive seasons. Copeia 1985: 56-68.
Hubbs, C., Edwards, R.J., Garrett, G.P. 2008. An annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Texas, with keys to identification of species. Texas Journal of Science, Supplement, 2nd edition 43(4): 1-87.
IUCN. 1990. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1986. 1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Jelks, H.L., Walsh, S.J., Burkhead, N.M., Contreras-Balderas, S., Díaz-Pardo, E., Hendrickson, D.A., Lyons, J., Mandrak, N.E., McCormick, F., Nelson, J.S., Platania, S.P., Porter, B.A., Renaud, C.B., Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, J., Taylor, E.B. and Warren, M.L. Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous Fishes. Fisheries 33(8).
Kuehne, R.A. and Barbour, R.W. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.
Lee, D.S., Gilbert, C.R., Hocutt, C.H., Jenkins, R.E., McAllister, D.E. and Stauffer, J.R., Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.
Linam, G.W, Mayes, K.B. and Saunders, K.S. 1993. Habitat utilization and population size estimate of fountain darters, Etheostoma fonticola, in the Comal River, Texas. Texas Journal of Science 45: 341-348.
Matthews, J.R. and Moseley, C.J. (eds). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species of North America. Volume 2. Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fishes, Mussels, Crustaceans, Snails, Insects, and Srachnids. Beacham Publications, Inc., Washington, D.C.
Nelson, J.S., Crossman, E.J., Espinosa-Pérez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N. and Williams, J.D. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Page, L.M. 1983. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Pub., Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada.
San Marcos Recovery Team. 1985. San Marcos recovery plan for San Marcos River endangered and threatened species (San Marcos gambusia, fountain darter, San Marcos salamander and Texas wildrice). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Schenck, J.R. and Whiteside, B.G. 1976. Distribution, habitat preference and population size estimate of Etheostoma fonticola. Copeia 1976: 697-703.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. San Marcos and Comal springs and associated aquatic ecosystems (revised) recovery plan. Albuquerque, New Mexico.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: report to Congress. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Etheostoma fonticola. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 12 December 2013.|
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