Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. swaynei
|Scientific Name:||Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. swaynei (P.L. Sclater, 1892)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Swayne's Hartebeest or Korkay (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) is one of eight subspecies of Hartebeest, following Gosling and Capellini (2013). The others being: Bubal Hartebeest (A. b. buselaphus); Lichtenstein's Hartebeest (A. b. lichtensteinii); Coke's Hartebeest or Kongoni (A. b. cokii); Tora Hartebeest (A. b. tora); Western Hartebeest or Kanki (A. b. major); Lelwel Hartebeest (A. b. lelwel); and Red Hartebeest (A. b. caama).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group|
Swayne's Hartebeest is listed as Endangered because it has a small extent of occurrence (EOO) (estimated at around 400 km²) and its area of occupancy (AOO) is only 259 km²; the subspecies now occurs at only two locations, recently reduced from three; and habitat quality is deteriorating due to anthropogenic pressure and encroachment.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Swayne's Hartebeest formerly occurred across the Rift valley of Ethiopia into northwest Somalia (East 1999). Tthe subspecies disappeared from Somaliland (northwest Somalia) in the early 20th century because of rinderpest (Hunt 1951). Now it is effectively restricted to two sites in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia, Senkelle Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary, east of Shashamane, and Mazie National Park (N.P). Animals from Senkelle were translocated to to Awash N.P., where they did not survive, and to Nech Sar N.P. where only only one animal remained in 2016, rendering the population ineffective. The total area of the two sites where the subspecies survives (area of occupancy) is 259 km² (Mazie N.P. - 202 km²; and Senkelle Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary - 57 km²).|
For the distribution map, see parent species assessment: Alcelaphus buselaphus.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In 2008, the total population of Swayne's Hartebeest was estimated at less than 800 (with the majority confined to the Senkelle Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary and Maze N.P., and a smaller number in Nech Sar N.P. in Ethiopia) (Antonínová et al. 2008). Mamo et al. (2012) reported 200 in Senkelle and 260 in Mazie N.P. in 2005.|
The population in Senkelle has increased since 2008; rangers counted 900 in 2016 (reserve staff, pers. comm. 2016). The Nech Sar population remained stable at 70-90 for about 15 years but then declined due to unknown reasons and only one old male was left in 2016. The current status of the population in Mazie N.P. is not well known but it is believed to number 200-300 (Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority, pers. comm. 2016). The current total population is thus greater than 1,000.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||In Somalia, Swayne's Hartebeest previously dominated the central areas of grassland plains, especially in drier areas, with coarser grasses (Gosling and Capellini 2013). The habitat in Senkelle Sanctuary consists of open grassland with some open Acacia woodland on the eastern side.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||7.5|
|Use and Trade:||Hartebeest (including Swayne's Hartebeest) are hunted for food and sport and are particularly valued for their high-quality meat (Gosling and Capellini 2013).|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats to Hartebeest in general, and including Swayne's Hartebeest, are agro-pastoral development and hunting. Senkelle Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary is entirely surrounded by agricultural land and is subject to annual encroachment by domestic cattle when the new grass appears. An investigation among four community associations around Senkelle Sanctuary found 58% of villagers reporting crop depredation by wildlife including Swayne's Hartebeest, widespread demands for resource use, and resentment at the lack of grazing access to the Sanctuary (Kumssa and Bekele 2013).|
Swayne's Hartebeest are now confined entirely to two protected areas: Senkele Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary and Mazie N.P. (Gosling and Capellini 2013). The survival of Swayne’s Hartebeest depends on effective protection of these remaining populations, especially in Senkelle.
Senkelle has well motivated staff but suffers from a lack of vehicles and equipment. All-night patrols are conducted during the new-born young hiding period and Golden Jackal Canis aureus and Spotted Hyena Crocuta crocuta, which are believed to take a heavy toll of the young, are controlled.
No individuals are held in captivity.
Antonínová, M., Vymyslická, P., Hecjmanová, P. and Froment, J.-M. 2008. Review on Swayne's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) status in Ethiopia with special focus on Nechisar National Park. Gazella 35: 35-56.
East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Gosling, L.M. and Capellini, I. 2013. Alcelaphus buselaphus Hartebeest. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, pp. 511-526. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.
Hunt, J.A. 1951. A general survey of the Somaliland Protectorate 1944-1950. Crown Agents, London, UK.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).
Kumssa, T. and Bekele, A. 2013. Human-wildlife conflict in Senkelle Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary, Ethiopia. Journal of Experimantal Biology and Agricultural Sciences 1: 32-38.
Mamo, Y., Mengesha, G., Fetene, A., Smale, K., Girma, M. 2012. Status of the Swayne's Hartebeest (Alecelpahus buselaphus swaynei) meta-population under land cover changes in Ethiopian protected areas. International Joutnal of Biodiversity and Conservation 4: 416-426.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. swaynei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T809A3145291.Downloaded on 19 October 2017.|
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