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Silene perlmanii 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Caryophyllales Caryophyllaceae

Scientific Name: Silene perlmanii W.L.Wagner, D.R.Herbst & Sohmer
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at: http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild) D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-08-14
Assessor(s): Chau, M., Sporck-Koehler, M., Gon, S.M., Keir, M., Portner, T., Sugii, N., Caraway, V.L. & Kwon, J.
Reviewer(s): Bruegmann, M. & Yoshioka, J.M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Schatz, G.E.
Justification:

Silene perlmanii is assessed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild). The taxon was endemic to the island of Oʻahu and, being last observed in 1997, has an extent of occurrence of zero km2. It had experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals. It is in cultivation and seed storage. This qualifies the taxon for a ranking of Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild) under criterion D.

Date last seen: 1997

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

This species is endemic to the Hawaiian islands, at 790 m elevation in the Waiʻanae mountains on the island of Oʻahu.

Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:0
Lower elevation limit (metres):790
Upper elevation limit (metres):790
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

The taxon is extremely rare (possibly extinct in the wild), with a total known population of zero individuals. 

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:0Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The taxon is a perennial subshrub that was found in Hawaiian lowland mesic forests.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There are no known uses for this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The major threats to this taxon include direct competition by invasive non-native plant species, especially Erigeron karvinskianum, Melinis minutiflora, Morella faya, Passiflora suberosa, and Schinus terebinthifolia; as well as predation and habitat degradation by non-native animals, particularly pigs and goats. Fortini et al. (2013) did not characterize the climate change vulnerability of this taxon.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

The taxon is on the US Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. The last known subpopulations occurred in protected areas, but were not fenced. Ex situ cultivation and seed storage is also ongoing. Outplantings have occurred in a fenced exclosure, but have not yet yielded viable offspring. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, and population genetics. 

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident 
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:No
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):0
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Very Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 9 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Sus domesticus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Very Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 9 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Capra hircus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Very Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 9 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Morella faya ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Passiflora suberosa ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Schinus terebinthifolia ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Erigeron karvinskianum ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Melinis minutiflora ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan

Bibliography [top]

Fortini, L., Price, J., Jacobi, J., Vorsino, A., Burgett, J., Brinck, K., Amidon, F., Miller, S., Gon II, S., Koob, G. and Paxton, E. 2013. A landscape-based assessment of climate change vulnerability for all native Hawaiian plants. Technical report HCSU-044. Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hawaii.

Harold L. Lyon Arboretum. 2012. Micropropagation database and seed storage databases. Unpublished. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1991. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; determination of endangered status for 26 plants from the Waianae Mountains, island of Oahu, Hawaii. Federal Register 56(209): 55770-55786.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2008. Silene perlmanii (no common name) 5- year review summary and evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2015. Silene perlmanii (no common name) 5- year review short-form summary. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1998. Recovery plan for the Oahu plants. Portland, Oregon.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2003. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: final designation or nondesignation of critical habitat for 101 plant species from the island of Oahu, HI; final rule. Federal Register 68(116): 35949-35998.


Citation: Chau, M., Sporck-Koehler, M., Gon, S.M., Keir, M., Portner, T., Sugii, N., Caraway, V.L. & Kwon, J. 2015. Silene perlmanii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T80219542A80219567. . Downloaded on 21 November 2017.
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