|Scientific Name:||Silene perlmanii W.L.Wagner, D.R.Herbst & Sohmer|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at: http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild) D ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Chau, M., Sporck-Koehler, M., Gon, S.M., Keir, M., Portner, T., Sugii, N., Caraway, V.L. & Kwon, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bruegmann, M. & Yoshioka, J.M.|
Silene perlmanii is assessed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild). The taxon was endemic to the island of Oʻahu and, being last observed in 1997, has an extent of occurrence of zero km2. It had experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals. It is in cultivation and seed storage. This qualifies the taxon for a ranking of Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild) under criterion D.
|Date last seen:||1997|
This species is endemic to the Hawaiian islands, at 790 m elevation in the Waiʻanae mountains on the island of Oʻahu.
Possibly extinct:United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The taxon is extremely rare (possibly extinct in the wild), with a total known population of zero individuals.
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The taxon is a perennial subshrub that was found in Hawaiian lowland mesic forests.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||There are no known uses for this species.|
The major threats to this taxon include direct competition by invasive non-native plant species, especially Erigeron karvinskianum, Melinis minutiflora, Morella faya, Passiflora suberosa, and Schinus terebinthifolia; as well as predation and habitat degradation by non-native animals, particularly pigs and goats. Fortini et al. (2013) did not characterize the climate change vulnerability of this taxon.
The taxon is on the US Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. The last known subpopulations occurred in protected areas, but were not fenced. Ex situ cultivation and seed storage is also ongoing. Outplantings have occurred in a fenced exclosure, but have not yet yielded viable offspring. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, and population genetics.
Fortini, L., Price, J., Jacobi, J., Vorsino, A., Burgett, J., Brinck, K., Amidon, F., Miller, S., Gon II, S., Koob, G. and Paxton, E. 2013. A landscape-based assessment of climate change vulnerability for all native Hawaiian plants. Technical report HCSU-044. Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hawaii.
Harold L. Lyon Arboretum. 2012. Micropropagation database and seed storage databases. Unpublished. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1991. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; determination of endangered status for 26 plants from the Waianae Mountains, island of Oahu, Hawaii. Federal Register 56(209): 55770-55786.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2008. Silene perlmanii (no common name) 5- year review summary and evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2015. Silene perlmanii (no common name) 5- year review short-form summary. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1998. Recovery plan for the Oahu plants. Portland, Oregon.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2003. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: final designation or nondesignation of critical habitat for 101 plant species from the island of Oahu, HI; final rule. Federal Register 68(116): 35949-35998.
|Citation:||Chau, M., Sporck-Koehler, M., Gon, S.M., Keir, M., Portner, T., Sugii, N., Caraway, V.L. & Kwon, J. 2015. Silene perlmanii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T80219542A80219567.Downloaded on 20 May 2018.|
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