Map_thumbnail_large_font

Cuniculus paca 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Rodentia Cuniculidae

Scientific Name: Cuniculus paca
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Common Name(s):
English Spotted Paca
French Agouti
Spanish Paca, Tepezquintle
Synonym(s):
Agouti paca (Linnaeus, 1766)
Taxonomic Notes: Formerly Agouti paca.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-03-01
Assessor(s): Emmons, L.
Reviewer(s): Amori, G.
Contributor(s): Vieira, E., Queirolo, D. & Samudio Jr, R.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category. However, local extinctions have occurred in the southeast of its range due to habitat destruction.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Occurs in eastern and southern Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and most of Brazil, and has also been introduced into Cuba and the lesser Antilles (Patton 2015). There are two new records in Tamaulipas and Hidalgo (Northeastern Mexico) (Rodriguez-Ruiz et al. 2012). It has a widespread distribution in Puebla, Mexico--16 records (Ramirez-Bravo and Hernandez Santin 2012).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Argentina; Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Uruguay; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Introduced:
Algeria; Cuba
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Widespread and locally common in the northern part of its range; scarce in the south of its distribution. Local extinctions of the species have occurred due to habitat destruction in the southeast of its range (Quierolo pers. comm.).

This rodent occurs at population densities of 84 to 93 individuals per square kilometer in suitable habitat in Colombia (Eisenberg and Redford 1999). Populations range from 25-70 adults per square km depending on the habitat (Patton 2015). It makes up to 16% of biomass of non-volent mammals in their communities (Patton 2015). Santos-Moreno and Perez-Irineo (2013) found the population 0.492 +/- 0.361 per hectare with variation probably due to precipitation; they also found an inverse statistically significant relationship between paca and their predators and competitors.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species occurs in a wide range of forest types in moist areas. It is frequently found in gallery forests near rivers and standing waters, where it builds its own burrow, or it can occupy that of another animal. Its diet is frugivorous and it may be an important seed distributor (Eisenberg and Redford 1999). Adults can live up to 13 years; fecundity is low but survivorship of adults is high (Patton 2015). They are solitary animals. Breeding occurs all year round, females breed one to three times a year with a litter size of one. Gestation ranges from 114-119 days in the lab with an interbirth interval of 191 days (Patton 2015). It carries diseases such as leishmanial and trypanosomiasis. Predators are all species of cats, coyotes, bush dogs, crocodiles, and boa constrictors (Patton 2015).
Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The Agouti is hunted for food. There have been studies on producing this species in captivity, it is not known how successful these have been and whether some are captively sourced.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This rodent is an important game animal throughout its range, and is frequently taken as bush meat. It makes up as much as 8% of wild meat consumed (Patton 2015). Asprilla-Perea et al. (2011) found no relation between the relative abundance of paca and the number of hunters of the harvest value per month. Valsecchi et al. (2014) found that hunting happened at night and that moonlighting was a common technique. Aquino et al. (2009) estimated hunting pressures to be 0.4 individuals/km2 and population density to be 6.2 individuals per km2. Gallina et al. (2012) interviewed 176 people in Mexico and estimated that this group had hunted 488 paca in the year. There are no regulations on hunting in the area.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species in included in Annex C of the Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 of 9 December 1996 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade therein. Honduras is included the species in CITES Appendix III in 1987. CITES Export Quotas have been issued for certain countries since 1997.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:Yes
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

Bibliography [top]

Aquino,R., Gil and D. Pezo,E. 2009. Ecological aspects and hunting sustainability of paca (Cuniculus paca) in the Itaya river basin, Peruvian Amazonia. Revista Peruana de Biologia 16(1): 67-72.

Asprilla-Perea, J., Lopez-Perea ,J.J., Viveros-Riveros, J.A. and Jiminez-Ortega, A.M. 2011. Relationship between relative abundance and use of Cuniculus paca (guagua, tepezcuintle) in black communitits of the Atrato river basin, Colombia. Mastozoologia neotropical 18(2): 301-306.

Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Gallina, S., Perez-Torres, J. and Guzman-Aguirre,C.C. 2012. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico. Revista de Biologia Tropical 60(3): 1345-1355.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).

Patton, J.L. 2015. Family Cuniculidae G.S. Miller and Gidley, 1918. In: Patton, J.L., Pardiñas, U.F.J. and D'Elía, G. (eds), Mammals of South America, pp. 726-733. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.

Ramirez-Bravo, O.E. and Hernandez-Santin, L. 2012. New records of tepezcuincle (Cuniculus paca ) in Puebla, Central Mexico. Rev. Mex. Biodiv. 83(3): 872-874.

Rodriguez-Ruiz, E.R., Castro-Arellano, I. and Valencia-Herveth, J. 2012. New Records and Proposed Geographical Range of Pacas (Cuniculus paca ) in Northeastern Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 57(2): 219-221.

Santos-Moreno, A. and Perez-Irineo, G. 2013. Abundancia de tepezcuintle (Cuniculus paca) y relación de su presencia con la de competidores y depredadores en una selva tropical. Therya 4(1): 89-98.

Valsecchi, J., El Bizri, H.R. and Figueria, J.E.C. 2014. Subsistence hunting of Cuniculus paca in the middle of the Solimões River, Amazonas, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 74(3): 560-568.


Citation: Emmons, L. 2016. Cuniculus paca. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T699A22197347. . Downloaded on 01 October 2016.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided