|Scientific Name:||Atelocynus microtis|
|Species Authority:||(Sclater, 1883)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Atelocynus is a monotypic genus. The species has formerly been placed in the genera Lycalopex, Cerdocyon, and Dusicyon. Phylogenetic analysis has shown Atelocynus microtis to be a distinct taxon most closely related to another monotypic Neotropical canid genus, Speothos.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Leite-Pitman, M.R.P. & Williams, R.S.R.|
|Reviewer/s:||Sillero-Zubiri, C. & Hoffmann, M.|
Although widespread, this species is rare and sightings are uncommon across its range. Although there are indications that the population may be recovering in some areas, with increasing numbers of sightings in recent years, this also reflects a greater number of biologists and tourists in the region and improvements in detection technology such as the use of camera-traps. Given the growing threats of habitat loss (especially due to large-scale conversion currently underway in Amazonia, especially for soybean production), prey-base depletion, and disease transmission from domestic dogs, it is inferred that the species has declined in the region of 20–25% over the past 12 years (estimated generation length = 4 years). The species is therefore listed as Near Threatened, based on approximating listing as Vulnerable under criterion A2.
The Short-eared Dog has been found in scattered sites from Colombia to Bolivia and Ecuador to Brazil. Its presence in Venezuela was suggested by Hershkovitz (1961) but never confirmed. Various studies have suggested the presence of the species throughout the entire Amazonian lowland forest region, as well as Andean foothill forests in Ecuador and Peru up to 2,000 m (Emmons and Feer 1990, 1997; Tirira 1999; A. Plenge pers. comm. 2002).
A single specimen [MACN 31.59 held in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”. (MACN). Colección de Mamíferos] collected on 4 June 1930 is documented as coming from western Pichincha in Ecuador (O.B. Vaccaro pers. comm.). A detailed locality is not provided and it is likely that it is mislabelled; the same collector collected another specimen on 30 July 1930 east of the Andes in Ecuador (specimen also in MACN). However, if the locality is correct, this would be the only record of the species west of the Andes and would mean that the species also previously occurred in the Chocó.
A specimen in the Santa Cruz Natural History Museum labelled as Atelocynus microtis, was genetically analysed and found to be a specimen of Cerdocyon thous (L. Emmons, pers. comm. 2008) which highlights the potential for misidentification between the two species in areas of savannah-forest ecotone in southern Amazonia (where the two species coexist).
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The Short-eared Dog is notoriously rare, and sightings are uncommon across its range. However, this may not always have been the case. The first biologists to study the species found it relatively easy to trap during mammal surveys around Balta, Amazonian Peru, in 1969 (A.L. Gardner and J.L. Patton pers. comm.). Grimwood (1969) reported collecting specimens around the same time in Peru's Manu basin (now Manu National Park), suggesting that the species was also relatively common in that area.
This local and temporary disappearance is potentially related to transmission of diseases by domestic dogs, commonly brought by local indigenous into protected areas. Two disease surveys carried out in Manu National Park found parvovirus and distemper to be common among domestic dogs, posing a threat to Short-eared Dog populations and other carnivores inside Manu and Alto Purus National Park (Schenck et al. 1997; Leite Pitman, Nieto et al. 2003).
Over the last two decades, it appears that the species population may be recovering in some areas, with increasing numbers of sightings in recent years, but which also certainly reflects a greater number of biologists and tourists in the region and improvements in detection technology such as the use of camera-traps. Between 1987 and 1999, biologists working in the Peruvian department of Madre de Dios, mostly in the vicinity of Cocha Cashu Biological Station, reported 15 Short-eared Dog sightings. Surveys in Cocha Cashu conducted from 2000–2003 resulted in a few brief encounters, while surveys around the Curanja and Purus rivers found tracks in every creek visited (M.R.P. Leite Pitman pers. obs.). From 2003 to date, more than 100 camera-trap pictures of this species have been recorded at Los Amigos Biological Station, also in south-eastern Peru (M.R.P. Leite Pitman pers. obs.). The species has also been recorded by camera traps in northern Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and western and eastern Brazil.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The Short-eared Dog favours undisturbed rainforest in the Amazonian lowlands. The species has been recorded in a wide variety of lowland habitats, including terra firme forest, swamp forest, stands of bamboo, and primary succession along rivers. At Cocha Cashu, sightings and tracks of the species are strongly associated with rivers and creeks, and there are five reliable reports of Short-eared Dogs swimming in rivers. Records are very rare in areas with significant human disturbance, i.e., near towns or in agricultural areas. It is unclear whether the Short-eared Dog is able to utilize habitats outside wet lowland forests. One sighting in Rondonia, Brazil, was in lowland forest bordering savanna (M. Messias pers. comm.). The species has also been recorded up to 2,000 m elevation in montane forest on ridges adjacent to lowlands.
In an ongoing field study initiated in Madre de Dios, Peru in 2000, a female tracked for one year used an area of 8 km² and a dispersing male 30km² in 3 months. Preliminary evidence suggests that male territories probably do not overlap (M.R.P. Leite Pitman pers. obs.).
The major threats to this species are habitat loss (especially due to large-scale conversion currently underway in Amazonia), prey-base depletion from hunting, and diseases. There are no reports of widespread persecution of the species.
Although protected on paper in most range countries, this has not yet been backed up by specific conservation action, although the species’ presence was a major factor for conservation efforts at Jamari National Forest, western Brazil (Koester et al. 2008).
The Short-eared Dog is likely to occur in most protected areas that encompass large tracts of undisturbed forest in western Amazonia. During the last decade, its presence has been confirmed in protected areas in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru.
The species is not included in the CITES Appendices.
No animals currently are known to be in formal captive breeding programmes. In the past, individuals have been held in several U.S. zoos (including the Lincoln Park Zoo, the National Zoo, the Brookfield Zoo, the Oklahoma City Zoo, and the San Antonio Zoo), mostly during the 1960s and 1970s (Leite Pitman and Williams 2004).
The biology, pathology, and ecology of the species are little known. Especially lacking is any true estimate of population density and an understanding of the species' habitat requirements. New GPS tracking technology will facilitate studies on density, habitat use and home-range.
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Berta, A. 1986. Atelocynus microtis. Mammalian Species 256: 1-3.
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F. 1990. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F. 1997. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide, Second edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Grimwood, I. R. 1969. Notes on the distribution and status of some Peruvian mammals. Special Publication Number 21. American Committee for International Wild Life Protection and New York Society, Bronx, New York, USA.
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hershkovitz, P. 1961. On the South American small-eared zorro Atelocynus microtis Sclater (Canidae). Fieldiana: Zoology 39: 505-523.
IUCN. 1990. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1986. 1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Janson, C. H. and Emmons, L. H. 1990. Ecological structure of the nonflying mammal community at Cocha Cashu Biological Station, Manu National Park, Peru. In: A. H. Gentry (ed.), Four neotropical forests, pp. 314-338. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Koester, A.D., Azevedo, C.R., Vogliotti, A. and Duarte, J.M.B. 2008. Ocorrência de Atelocynus microtis (Sclater, 1882) na Floresta Nacional do Jamari, estado de Rondônia. Biota Neotropica 8(4): 231-234.
Leite Pitman, M.R.P. and Williams, R.S.R. 2004. The short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis). In: C. Sillero-Zubiri, M. Hoffmann and D.W. Macdonald (eds), Canids: Foxes, Wolves and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, second edition, pp. 26-31. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK.
Leite Pitman, M.R.P., Beck, H. and Velazco, P. 2003. Mamíferos terrestres y arbóreos de la selva baja de la Amazonía peruana entre los ríos Manu y Alto Purú. In: M.R.P. Leite Pitman, N.C.A. Pitman and P.C. Alvarez (eds), Alto Purús: Biodiversidad, Conservación y Manejo, pp. 109-122. Center for Tropical Conservation and INRENA.
Leite Pitman, M.R.P., Nieto, F.V. and Davenport, L. 2003. Amenaza de enfermedades epidémicas a la conservación de carnívoros silvestres en la Amazonía peruan. In: M.R.P. Leite Pitman, N.C.A. Pitman and P.C. Alvarez (eds), Alto Purús: Biodiversidad, Conservación y Manejo, pp. 227-231. Center for Tropical Conservation and INRENA.
Pacheco, V., de Macedo, H., Vivar, E., Ascorra, C. F., Arana-Cardó, R. and Solari, S. 1995. Lista anotada de los mamíferos peruanos. Occasional Papers in Conservation Biology 2: 1-35.
Pacheco, V., Patterson, B. D., Patton, J. L., Emmons, L. H., Solari, S. and Ascorra, C. F. 1993. List of mammal species known to occur in Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru. Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos 44: 1-12.
Pereira, A.P.C.P. 2002. Ecologia alimentar do cuxiú-preto (Chiropotes satanas satanas) na Fazenda Amanda, Pará. Mestrado em Teoria e Pesquisa do Comportamento, Universidade Federal do Pará.
Pitman, N., Moskovits, D. K., Alverson, W. S. and Borman. A. 2002. Ecuador: Serranías Cofán-Bermejo, Sinangoe. Rapid biological Inventories. Report 3. The Field Museum, Chicago, USA.
Rodriguez, J. V. 1998. Listas preliminares de mamíferos colombianos con algún riesgo a la extinción.
Schenck, C., Staib, E. and Storch I. 1997. Domestic animal disease risks for Peruvian Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis). IUCN Veterinary Specialist Group Newsletter 14: 7-8.
Terborgh, J., Fitzpatrick, J. W. and Emmons, L. 1984. Annotated checklist of bird and mammal species of Cocha Cashu Biological Station, Manu National Park, Peru. Fieldiana: Zoology 21: 1-29.
Thornback, J. and Jenkins, M. 1982. The IUCN Mammal Red Data Book. Part 1: Threatened mammalian taxa of the Americas and the Australasian zoogeographic region (excluding Cetacea). IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Tirira, D. 1999. Mamiferos del Ecaudor. Museo de Zoologia, Centro de Biodiversidad y Ambiente, Pontifica Universidad Católica del Ecaudor and Sociedad para la Investigación y Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad Ecuatoriana, Quito, Ecuador.
Woodman, N., Timm, R. M., Arana-Cardo, R., Pacheco, V., Schmidt, C. A., Hooper, E. D. and Pacheco-Acero, C. 1991. Annotated checklist of the mammals of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occasional papers of the Museum of Natural History, the University of Kansas 145: 1-12.
|Citation:||Leite-Pitman, M.R.P. & Williams, R.S.R. 2011. Atelocynus microtis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 April 2014.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided|