|Scientific Name:||Dorcatragus megalotis|
|Species Authority:||(Menges, 1894)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C1 ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Heckel, J.-O., Rayaleh, H.A., Wilhelmi, F. & Hammer, S.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mallon, D.P. & Chardonnet, P. (Antelope Red List Authority)|
Listed as Vulnerable as the population is <10,000 mature individuals and is estimated to decline by at least 10% over three generations (16.5 years) as a result of drought, overgrazing by domestic livestock and some hunting.
|Range Description:||Endemic to northeast Africa. Most of the distribution area lies in northern Somalia [Somaliland], from the Nogaal Valley northwards. Full details of the distribution are unclear, but from historical and recent information the remaining core areas of the population are: Asse hills-Lahan Sheik, Garoowe area (Bur Cobohille), Wagar, Buuraha and Golis mountains, Araweina, Ali Haidh and Guban region. Between these locations, occasional sightings have been reported (Moustapha Elmi 1992, Giotto et al. in press).
The species’ existence in Djibouti was only confirmed in 1993, when they were observed on hillsides at two sites in the southeast, close to the borders with Somalia and Ethiopia (Künzel and Künzel 1998). Recent surveys have shown that the area of distribution in Djibouti is about 250 km² and located in the mountainous Ali Sabieh - Arrey - Assamo region (Künzel et al. 2000, Laurent et al. 2001, Heckel et al. 2004).
In Ethiopia, the species is known from the Marmar mountains along the border with north-west Somalia (Bolton 1973). No recent information is available on its status in this part of the country, where large numbers of armed pastoralists and their livestock now reside. There is no evidence of their occurrence in the Ogaden region (Wilhelmi 1997, Wilhelmi et al. 2006).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
In the 1980s it still occupied large parts of its historical range, but in greatly reduced numbers. East (1999) estimated the population at 7,000 [though fewer mature individuals] based on the assumption that a population density of 0.2 /km² applied throughout the species’ range, and that its area of occupancy is about 35,000 km². Most occur in northern Somalia, which has been relatively unaffected by the civil/military conflicts in the rest of the country. Its numbers may be decreasing in some parts of its range where settlement is expanding and livestock densities are high, but its populations are probably stable in areas with few settlements.
In Djibouti, the total population has been estimated at between 50 and 150 individuals (Künzel and Künzel 1998, Laurent et al. 2001, Heckel et al. 2004). In Djibouti, Beira are restricted to a limited area and likely decreasing in number due to desertification by overgrazing and disturbance from an incoming population of refugees. In Somalia, animals underwent a marked decline in number during the 1975 drought (Simonetta 1988).
|Habitat and Ecology:||Beira frequent rocky or stony hillsides, rarely steep slopes, where the dominant vegetation is a woody steppe of mixed Acacia scrub (Giotto et al. in press).|
|Major Threat(s):||Drought, habitat deterioration as a result of overgrazing by domestic livestock, uncontrolled hunting and cutting of woodland and scrub for charcoal exports to the Gulf area (Moustapha Elmi 1992, East 1999). However, the Beira’s small size, wariness, and the vegetated rocky habitat it prefers have apparently enabled it to avoid heavy hunting pressure.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no protected areas within beira range or active in-situ conservation programmes for the species. There is a successful captive- breeding population at Al Wabra, Qatar.|
East, R. 1999. African Antelope Database 1999. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Giotto, N., Laurent, A. and Künzel, T. In press. Dorcatragus megalotis. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Heckel, J.-O., Rayaleh, H. A., Hammer, S. C. and Künzel, T. 2004. Status of the Beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) in the Republic of Djibouti. Report at the International Symposium on the Ecology and Conservation of Mini-Antelope. Blue Bay Beach Resort, Kiwengwa, Zanzibar.
IUCN. 1990. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1986. 1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Künzel, T. and Künzel, S. 1998. An overlooked population of the beira antelope Dorcatragus megalotis in Djibouti. Oryx 32: 75-80.
Künzel, T., Rayaleh, H. A. and Künzel, S. 2000. Status Assessment Survey on Wildlife in Djibouti. Final Report. Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species and Populations (Z.S.C.S.P.) and Office National du Tourisme et de l’Artisanat (O.N.T.A.).
Moustapha Elmi. 1992. Compte-rendu de mission sur le Beira Dorcatragus megalotis, Somalie du nord, 1-10/8/92. Report for the Association Djiboutienne pour la Nature (A.D.N.), Djibouti.
Scott, P. 1965. Section XIII. Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds. The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964, pp. 15-207. Collins, London, UK.
Simonetta, A. M. 1988. Chapter 6. Somalia. In: R. East (ed.), Antelopes Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. Part. 1. East and Northeast Africa, pp. 27-33. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Wilhelmi, F. K. 1997. Ground Survey on Wildlife in the Ogaden Region in Eastern Ethiopia. Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species and Populations, Munich, Germany.
Wilhelmi, F., Kaariye, X. Y., Hammer, S., Hammer, C. and Heckel, J.-O. 2006. On the status of wild ungulates in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia. Proceedings of the Sahara-Sahelo Interest Group Meeting 2006, Douz, Tunisia.. Douz, Tunisia.
|Citation:||Heckel, J.-O., Rayaleh, H.A., Wilhelmi, F. & Hammer, S. 2008. Dorcatragus megalotis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 06 December 2013.|
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