|Scientific Name:||Diphylla ecaudata|
|Species Authority:||Spix, 1823|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Sampaio, E., Lim, B. & Peters, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Medellín, R. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Least Concern as it is widespread, relatively tolerant to a range of habitats, and is unlikely to be declining rapidly enough to qualify under a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||North, Central, and South America. This species ranges from Southern Tamaulipas (Mexico) to Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, and Eastern Brazil; a single vagrant individual has also been reported from Southern Texas (USA) (Simmons 2005). Lowlands to 1,900 m (Reid, 1997). Has been collected up to 1,000 m asl. Also central and southern Brazil.|
Native:Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Uncommon and local, but widespread (Emmons and Feer, 1997). They roost either alone or in small groups of 12 or less. In one study, D. ecaudata was observed to be more solitary and did not gather into groups when in the presence of other bats in a cave. They have a structured society in which they build strong social bonds with other bats in the colony. Very rare in Belize (Miller pers. comm.)|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Found in all types of forest, mainly at low elevations. Roosts in caves and mines, rarely in hollow trees. Individuals are well spaced in the roost, and group size is usually small, although a group of more than 500 was found in a cave in Puebla, Mexico, where numbers were much reduced in January, perhaps indicating seasonal movements or migration. Avian blood may predominate in the diet of wild individuals, although cattle are occasionally exploited. Unlike other vampires, this attractive bat is gentle and easy to handle. Reproduction occurs year around (Reid, 1997). Also occurs in open areas (Aguiar pers. comm.).|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats throughout its range. There are vampire control programs.|
|Conservation Actions:||Further surveys are needed in the Amazon region to confirm the species presence or absence. As for other vampire species, education programs about vampire and rabies control programs are required. The species should be excluded from vampire control programs.|
Emmons, L.H. and Feer, F. 1997. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide, Second edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Reid, F. 1997. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Simmons, N. B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
|Citation:||Sampaio, E., Lim, B. & Peters, S. 2008. Diphylla ecaudata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 December 2014.|
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