|Scientific Name:||Dinaromys bogdanovi|
|Species Authority:||(Martino, 1922)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Molecular data suggests that this taxon might in fact consist of two (or more) species, although further research is required to confirm this (Kryštufek et al. 2007). Genetic and morphological data clearly indicate that the Balkan Snow Vole is composed of three historically isolated, independently evolving sets of populations, that can be regarded as evolutionary significant units (ESUs).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iv) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Dinaromys bogdanovi is endemic to the Balkans area of the Mediterranean region. It is restricted to a specialised and fragmented habitat, and may be declining in parts of its range as a result of competition with the European snow vole. The area of occupancy is restricted, and is certainly less than 2,000 km² (B. Kryštufek pers. comm. 2007). Its range is severely fragmented due to the species' specialised habitat requirements and the range is shrinking. Listed as Vulnerable (VU B2ab(i,ii,iv)). Research is urgently needed to determine how serious a threat competition with the European snow vole is.
Dinaromys bogdanovi consists of three historically isolated, independently evolving sets of populations, which can be regarded as evolutionary significant units (ESUs), and which are likely to constitute at least two separate species. If these were assessed separately, then it is extremely likely that one or more of them would qualify as Endangered or Critically Endangered under the IUCN Red List Criteria.
|Range Description:||The Balkan snow vole is endemic to the Balkan states of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and western Macedonia. Its range is likely to extend into Albania and may include northern Greece, although there are no known records (Kryštufek 1999, Shenbrot and Krasnov 2005). It occurs from sea level to 2,200 m, but is typically found over 1,500 m and rarely much lower (Kryštufek 1999, B. Kryštufek pers. comm. 2006). It is the only living representative of its genus, and its range was restricted throughout prehistorical times.|
Native:Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Serbia (Serbia)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Because it is restricted to karst limestone habitats, it has a naturally discontinuous distribution, and subpopulations are always small and isolated (B. Kryštufek pers. comm. 2006). The long-term population trend has not been quantified, but there is evidence to suggest that the species is declining in both population and range (Kryštufek et al. 2007). At the southernmost known site (on the Macedonia/Albania border) there have been no records of this species in the last 30 years, and the only records since then are of the European snow vole Chionomys nivalis (B. Kryštufek pers. comm. 2006). There are three distinct lineages within the population (Kryštufek et al. 2007). One of these, the north-western lineage, is of particular cause for concern: its range is excessively limited and
highly fragmented, with only 17 known localities that stretch along approximately 300 km of the Dinaric mountain
range; and its populations are invariably small and frequently highly isolated, with an extensive survey of its range often yielding only one individual in many of the sampling localities (Kryštufek et al. 2007).
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found exclusively in rocky karst limestone areas, typically being found in stone-piles in meadows above the tree line, less often in rocky areas below the tree line. It has highly specific habitat requirements (Kryštufek et al. 2007). It eats grasses and herbs. The species' life history is slow compared to other Arvicoline rodents: longevity is up to four years, age at sexual maturity is two years, and the species has 1-2 litters per year (Petrov 1992, B. Kryštufek pers. comm. 2006).|
|Major Threat(s):||It tends to inhabit isolated, inaccessible areas that are subject to little human disturbance. However, interspecific competition with another native rock-dwelling vole, Chionomys nivalis, may possibly pose a threat (Kryštufek 1999, Kryštufek et al. 2007). There has been no research and monitoring to determine whether this is a major threat, or whether this is occurring over a long time period - there is only anecdotal evidence from the southernmost locality (B. Kryštufek pers. comm. 2006).|
|Conservation Actions:||The species occurs in several protected areas within its range. There is some national legislation in at least parts of its range. There is an urgent need to establish a long term monitoring program, and to determine the extent of competition with the European snow vole.|
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Kryštufek, B. 1999. Dinaromys bogdanovi. In: A. J. Mitchell-Jones, G. Amori, W. Bogdanowicz, B. Kryštufek, P. J. H. Reijnders, F. Spitzenberger, M. Stubbe, J. B. M. Thissen, V. Vohralík and J. Zima (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals, pp. 218-219. Academic Press, London, UK.
Kryštufek, B., Buzan, E. V., Hutchinson, W. F. and Hänfling, B. 2007. Phylogeography of the rare Balkan endemic Martino’s vole, Dinaromys bogdanovi, reveals strong differentiation within the western Balkan Peninsula. Molecular Ecology 16: 1221–1232.
Petrov, B. 1992. Mammals of Yugoslavia. Insectivores and Rodents. National History Museum, Belgrade.
Shenbrot, G. I. and Krasnov, B. R. 2005. An Atlas of the Geographic Distribution of the Arvicoline Rodents of the World (Rodentia, Muridae: Arvicolinae). Pensoft Publishers, Sofia.
|Citation:||Kryštufek, B. 2008. Dinaromys bogdanovi. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 12 December 2013.|
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