Crotalus tigris 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Viperidae

Scientific Name: Crotalus tigris Kennicott, 1859
Common Name(s):
English Tiger Rattlesnake

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2007
Date Assessed: 2007-03-01
Assessor(s): Frost, D.R., Hammerson, G.A. & Gadsden, H.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species' range extends from central Arizona south through south-central Arizona in the United States (Lowe et al. 1986, Painter and Milensky, 1993, Howland et al. 2002), to southern Sonora, Mexico, including Isla Tiburon in the Gulf of California, at elevations from sea level to about 1,465m asl (4,800 feet) (Stebbins 2003, Campbell and Lamar 2004). Reported occurrences at higher elevations have not been confirmed (Campbell and Lamar 2004).
Countries occurrence:
Mexico; United States
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:On a range-wide scale, Campbell and Lamar (2004) mapped 33 collection sites. Lowe et al. (1986) stated that the species is known from approximately 100 localities throughout the range. The adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This snake is fairly common in some areas, but "some local populations seem small" (Ernst and Ernst 2003). Its extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size are probably relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10% over 10 years or three generations.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species' habitats include rocky desert canyons, foothills, and bajadas, in vegetation zones ranging from thornscrub, ocotillo-mesquite-creosote bush, saguaro-paloverde, mesquite grassland, and chaparral to tropical deciduous forest (southern Sonora) and the lower edge of oak woodland (Behler and King 1979, Lowe et al. 1986, Ernst and Ernst 2003, Stebbins 2003, Campbell and Lamar 2004). In southeastern Arizona, this snake occurs strictly in rocky areas in winter and spring but uses edges of arroyos in summer (Beck 1995). It is a terrestrial species but may climb into low vegetation.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Southern populations on the flatter areas of the coastal plain of Sonora are probably losing habitat due to the intensification of agriculture. However, overall, this species is not seriously threatened.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Some occurrences of this species are in protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
8. Desert -> 8.1. Desert - Hot
8. Desert -> 8.2. Desert - Temperate

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

Armstrong, B.L. and Murphy, J.B. 1979. The natural history of Mexican rattlesnakes. University of Kansas Museum Natural History, Special Publications 1(5): 1-88.

Beck, D.D. 1995. Ecology and energetics of three sympatric rattlesnakes in the Sonoran Desert. Journal of Herpetology 29: 211-223.

Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 743 pp.

Brattstrom, B.H. 1964. Evolution of the pit vipers. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 13: 185-286.

Campbell, J.A. and Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Campbell, J.A. and Lamar, W.W. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Comstock, Ithaca, New York and London, UK.

Ernst, C.H. 1992. Venomous Reptiles of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Ernst, C.H. and Ernst, E.M. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C.

Howland, J.M., Enderson, E.F., Bezy, R.L., Sigafus, B.H. and Titcomb, A. 2002. Crotalus tigris (Tiger Rattlesnake). Geographic Distribution. Herpetological Review 33(2): 149.

IUCN. 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 12th September 2007).

Klauber, L.M. 1972. Rattlesnakes: Their Habits, Life Histories, and Influence on Mankind. Second edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Lowe, C.H., Schwalbe, C.R. and Johnson, T.B. 1986. The Venomous Reptiles of Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish Department.

Painter, C.W. and Milensky, C.M. 1993. Crotalus tigris (tiger rattlesnake). USA: Arizona. Herpetological Review 24(4): 155-156.

Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Stille, B. 1987. Dorsal scale microdermatoglyphics and rattlesnake (Crotalus and Sistrurus) phylogeny (Reptilia: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Herpetologica 43: 98-104.

Citation: Frost, D.R., Hammerson, G.A. & Gadsden, H. 2007. Crotalus tigris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T64335A12771531. . Downloaded on 18 June 2018.
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