|Scientific Name:||Thamnophis radix|
|Species Authority:||(Baird & Girard, 1853)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species ranges from central United States to south-central Canada. Its range extends from southern Alberta, Montana, eastern Wyoming, eastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico eastward through southern Manitoba, Minnesota, southern Wisconsin and northern and central Illinois to northwestern Indiana and disjunctly to central Ohio, southward to northern Texas, western Oklahoma, and northern half of Missouri, at elevations of 120 to 2,290 m (400 to 7,500 feet) but usually below 1,830 m (6,000 feet) (Rossman et al. 1996, Hammerson 1999, Ernst and Ernst 2003, Stebbins 2003, Walley et al. 2003).|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by a very large number of occurrences (subpopulations) (Walley et al. 2003). The adult population size is unknown but undoubtedly exceeds 100,000, probably much more. This snake is very common in many parts of its large range. The extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size are probably relatively stable.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This snake often occurs in the vicinity of ponds, sloughs, marshes, lakes, or slow creeks or rivers, generally in prairie and farmland areas but also in the pinyon-juniper zone; it often disperses into adjacent terrestrial habitats, such as vacant lots, residential areas, old dumps, or prairie (Rossman et al. 1996, Hammerson 1999, Ernst and Ernst 2003, Stebbins 2003). Hibernation sites include burrows of rodents or crayfish, crevices, anthills, old wells, spaces under concrete, and other similar sites; some may hibernate underwater.|
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats are known. This species tolerates a good deal of habitat alteration. Many are killed on roads or by mowing equipment, but this does not constitute a major threat.|
|Conservation Actions:||Many occurrences are in protected areas.|
Bartlett, R D. and Bartlett, P.P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xviii + 331 pp.
Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Dixon, J.R. 2000. Amphibians and Reptiles of Texas. With Keys, Taxonomic Synopses, Bibliography, and Distribution Maps. Second edition. Texas A & M University Press, College Station, College Station, Texas.
Ernst, C.H. and Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of Eastern North America. George Mason University Press, Fairfax, Virginia. 282 pp.
Ernst, C.H. and Ernst, E.M. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C.
Hammerson, G.A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. Second edition. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
IUCN. 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12th September 2007).
Minton Jr., S.A. 1972. Amphibians and reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy Science Monographs 3: v + 346 pp.
Rossman, D.A., Ford, N.B. and Seigel, R.A. 1996. The Garter Snakes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma and London, UK.
Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Tennant, A. 1984. The Snakes of Texas. Texas Monthly Press, Austin, Texas. 561 pp.
Tennant, A. 1998. A Field Guide to Texas Snakes. Second edition. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas.
Werler, J.E. and Dixon, J.R. 2000. Texas Snakes: Identification, Distribution, and Natural History. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.
|Citation:||Hammerson, G.A. 2007. Thamnophis radix. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T63988A12726792.Downloaded on 16 January 2017.|
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