|Scientific Name:||Thamnophis butleri|
|Species Authority:||(Cope, 1889)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada. Its range includes southern Ontario, eastern Michigan, eastern Indiana, Ohio, and southeastern Wisconsin (Vogt 1981, Rossman et al. 1996, Minton 2001, Ernst and Ernst 2003).|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by a fairly large number of occurrences (subpopulations) (Minton 1980). The adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This snake is very common in preferred habitat in most of its range (Rossman et al. 1996), although Minton (2001) described it as a rare relict species in Indiana. The current trend is not definitely known, but extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size are probably relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10% over 10 years or three generations.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat consists of open moist grassy/sedgy situations: meadows, pastures, marsh edges, margins of lakes and streams in open country, vacant lots, old dumps, railroad embankments, and roadsides, including such areas in cities; also seasonally dry uplands; shelters include logs, rocks, debris on the ground, old house foundations, burrows, ant mounds, and similar sites (Vogt 1981, Rossman et al. 1996, Harding 1997, Minton 2001, Ernst and Ernst 2003).|
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats are known. This snake has benefited from deforestation, and it thrives in disturbed areas in urban areas, but sometimes is eliminated or reduced with intensive development of its preferred habitat.|
|Conservation Actions:||Its level of protection is unknown, but this species probably occurs in at least several protected areas.|
Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Ernst, C.H. and Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of Eastern North America. George Mason University Press, Fairfax, Virginia. 282 pp.
Ernst, C.H. and Ernst, E.M. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C.
Harding, J.H. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. xvi + 378 pp.
IUCN. 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12th September 2007).
Minton Jr., S.A. 1972. Amphibians and reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy Science Monographs 3: v + 346 pp.
Rossman, D.A., Ford, N.B. and Seigel, R.A. 1996. The Garter Snakes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma and London, UK.
|Citation:||Hammerson, G.A. 2007. Thamnophis butleri. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 December 2013.|
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