Farancia erytrogramma 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Dipsadidae

Scientific Name: Farancia erytrogramma
Species Authority: (Latreille, 1802)
Common Name(s):
English Rainbow Snake

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2007
Date Assessed: 2007-03-01
Assessor(s): Hammerson, G.A.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the southeast of the United States. Its range extends along the Coastal Plain from southern Maryland to Florida, west to the Mississippi River (Dundee and Rossman 1989, Conant and Collins 1991, Tennant 1997, Ernst and Ernst 2003).
Countries occurrence:
United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations). The adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000 and is probably much larger. This snake is secretive but can occur in dense populations (Mount 1975, Ernst and Ernst 2003). It is apparently uncommon in North Carolina (Palmer and Braswell 1995). Tennant (1997) reported it as uncommon to rare in Florida but regularly encountered when conditions are right. The extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size are probably relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10% over 10 years or three generations.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This snake lives primarily in or near rivers, creeks, swamps, springs, open marshes, including brackish tidal areas; it burrows into soil, wet debris, and mats of vegetation along the water's edge, and it may shelter among cypress roots, logs, stone piles, or dock pillings; in some areas hibernation occurs in uplands near water (Mount 1975, Dundee and Rossman 1989, Palmer and Braswell 1995, Ernst and Ernst 2003). In South Carolina, hatchlings presumably overwintered on land in the vicinity of the nest; in March and April they moved overland to an aquatic site where they remained if conditions remained suitable; they moved to a neighbouring aquatic area if the site became unsuitable (Gibbons et al. 1977). Eggs are laid in a cavity in sandy soil.
Systems: Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No major threats are known. Locally, habitat alteration (wetlands drainage and urbanization) and collecting for the pet trade have decimated some populations (Ernst and Ernst 2003), but overall it is not significantly threatened.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Many occurrences are protected in state parks, wildlife refuges, national seashores, etc.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.3. Wetlands (inland) - Shrub Dominated Wetlands
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability: Suitable  
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.5. Marine Intertidal - Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses)
suitability: Marginal  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Bartlett, R D. and Bartlett, P.P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xviii + 331 pp.

Conant, R. and Collins, J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Dundee, H.A. and Rossman, D.A. 1989. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Ernst, C.H. and Ernst, E.M. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C.

IUCN. 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 12th September 2007).

Mount, R.H. 1975. The Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pp.

Tennant, A. 1997. A Field Guide to Snakes of Florida. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xiii + 257 pp.

Citation: Hammerson, G.A. 2007. Farancia erytrogramma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T63780A12707838. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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