Dasypus hybridus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cingulata Dasypodidae

Scientific Name: Dasypus hybridus
Species Authority: (Desmarest, 1804)
Common Name(s):
English Southern Long-Nosed Armadillo
Spanish Mulita, Mulita Pampeana

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2013-10-02
Assessor(s): Abba, A.M. & Gonzalez, E.
Reviewer(s): Loughry, J. & Superina, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Abba, A.M.
Dasypus hybridus is listed as Near Threatened as it is believed to have undergone a decline of approximately 20 to 25% over the past three generations (suspected to be around 12 years) due to severe habitat loss and hunting throughout its range. The species was previously more widespread and locally more common (over 30 years ago). It almost qualifies as threatened under criterion A2cd.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Dasypus hybridus is found in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. It occurs as far south as the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina (Abba and Vizcaíno 2011, Abba et al. 2012). The distribution is more restricted than depicted by Redford and Eisenberg (1992) and Wetzel (1985). Localities in the west near the Andes are based on incorrectly identified individuals. In the province of Córdoba, Argentina, it is restricted to the east. The exact northern limit of its range is uncertain due to its morphological similarity to Dasypus septemcinctus, while the western limit is unclear due to its similarity with D. yepesi. It occurs from sea level to 2,000 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Argentina (Buenos Aires, Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, La Pampa, Misiones, Santa Fé, Santiago del Estero); Brazil (Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina); Paraguay; Uruguay
Additional data:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Dasypus hybridus was previously common (although there are no population density estimates available), but it is sensitive to habitat loss through urbanization, and agricultural expansion has meant that populations are declining or are absent over much of its former range (Abba et al. 2007). It remains a common species in parts of its range (e.g. the province of Buenos Aires, Abba and Vizcaíno 2011).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This armadillo species is typically found in the grasslands and pampas of northern and central Argentina (Abba et al. 2007; Abba and Cassini 2008; Abba and Vizcaíno 2011; Abba et al. 2011, 2012). It is also present, but less common, in woodland and forest habitats.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This armadillo is used as a protein source and to make handicrafts.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Dasypus hybridus is threatened by habitat loss through agriculture and urbanization, accidental mortality on roads, direct hunting for food and predation by dogs (Abba et al. 2007, Abba 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Dasypus hybridus has been recorded in a few protected areas. It is considered a conservation priority species in Uruguay (González et al. 2013).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Canis familiaris ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Handicrafts, jewellery, etc.
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Abba, A.M. 2008. Ecología y Conservación de los armadillos (Mammalia, Dasypodidae) en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. División Zoología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.

Abba, A.M. and Cassini, M.H. 2008. Ecology and conservation of three species of armadillos in the Pampas region, Argentina. In: S.F. Vizcaíno and J.W. Loughry (eds), Biology of the Xenarthra, pp. 300-305. University Press of Florida, Florida.

Abba, A.M. and Cassini, M.H. 2010. Ecological differences between two sympatric species of armadillos (Xenarthra, Mammalia) in a temperate region of Argentina. Acta Theriologica 55: 35-44.

Abba, A.M. and Vizcaíno, S.F. 2011. Distribución de los armadillos (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mastozoología Neotropical 18: 185-206.

Abba, A.M., Cassini, G.H. and Galliari, F.C. 2011. Nuevos aportes a la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae). Iheringia, Série Zoologia 101: 325-335.

Abba, A.M., Cassini, M.H. and Vizcaíno, S.F. 2007. Effects of land use on the distribution of three species of armadillos (Mammalia, Dasypodidae) in the pampas, Argentina. Journal of Mammalogy 88(2): 502-507.

Abba, A.M., Tognelli, M.F., Seitz, V.P., Bender, J.B. and Vizcaíno, S.F. 2012. Distribution of extant xenarthrans (Mammalia: Xenarthra) in Argentina using species distribution models. Mammalia 76: 123-136.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Gardner, A.L. 1993. Order Xenarthra. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Second Edition, pp. 63-68. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Gardner, A.L. 2005. Order Cingulata. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition., pp. 94-99. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

González, E.M., Martínez-Lanfranco, J.A., Soutullo, A., Juri, E., Rodales, A.L. and Botto, G. 2013. Mamíferos. In: C. Clavijo, J. A. Martínez-Lanfranco and A. Soutullo (eds), Especies prioritarias para la conservación en Uruguay. Vertebrados, moluscos continentales y plantas vasculares, pp. 176-207. DINAMA. Faliner SA, Montevideo.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Redford, K.H. and Eisenberg, J.F. 1992. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Southern Cone, Vol. 2, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay. Chicago University Press, Chicago.

Wetzel, R.M. 1982. Systematics, distribution, ecology, and conservation of South American edentates. In: M.A. Mares and H.H. Genoways (eds), Mammalian biology in South America, pp. 345-375. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Wetzel, R.M. 1985. Taxonomy and distribution of armadillos, Dasypodidae. In: G.G. Montgomery (ed.), The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths, and vermilinguas, pp. 23-48. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Wetzel, R.M. and Mondolfi, E. 1979. The subgenera and species of long-nosed armadillos, genus Dasypus L. In: J.F. Eisenberg (ed.), Vertebrate ecology in the Northern Neotropics, pp. 43–47. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Citation: Abba, A.M. & Gonzalez, E. 2014. Dasypus hybridus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T6288A47440329. . Downloaded on 18 January 2017.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided