Damaliscus lunatus ssp. topi
|Scientific Name:||Damaliscus lunatus ssp. topi Blaine, 1914|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Coastal Topi (Damaliscus lunatus topi) is one of six subspecies of Topi (Damaliscus lunatus), following Duncan (2013). The others being: Topi (D. l. jimela); Bangweulu Tsessebe (D. l. superstes); Tiang (D. l. tiang); Tsessebe (D. l. lunatus); and Korrigum (D. l. korrigum).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bcd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group|
Coastal Topi is listed as Endangered under criterion A2 due to an estimated decline in Kenya of 77% between 1995 and 2013 (18 years; three generations), which is continuing. Although there is no recent information on the population in Somalia, a substantial decline is suspected given the state of lawlessness and presence of armed groups in the south-west. Coastal Topi are mainly found outside outside protected areas. Range and population size have decreased due to hunting and agricultural and other developments in the coastal zone of Kenya.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The distribution of Coastal Topi is separated from that of other subspecies and is limited to areas of south-east Kenya and adjoining areas of Somalia. In Somalia they formerly occurred in riverine grasslands on the lower Shebelle and Juba Rivers and in Kenya in Lamu, Garissa and Tana River districts, though recently recorded only in Lamu and Tana River. There is no recent information available from Somalia.|
For the distibution map, see the parent species assessment: Damaliscus lunatus.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||East (1999) estimated a global population of 100,000 Coastal Topi. According to modelling by Ogutu et al. (2016) based on aerial surveys, the Kenyan population of Coastal Topi in Tana River and Lamu counties was estimated at 64,357 in 1977, 22,465 in 1995 and only 5,190 in 2013, representing a decline of 77% over the last three generations and ca 92% since 1977.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This subspecies is generally an inhabitant of floodplains and other grasslands in eastern Africa. In Somalia, the Coastal Topi formerly occurred locally in the south, in riverine grasslands on the lower Shebelle and Juba Rivers and in the Lake Badana area. Nearly exclusively grazers, they can go for months without drinking in the dry season if they are feeding on growing grass (Duncan 2013).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||6.1|
|Use and Trade:||This subspecies is hunted for food and sport.|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats to Topi in general, and including the subspecies Coastal Topi, are agro-pastoral development and overhunting. Numbers of sheep and goats in the two counties where this subspecies occurs increased by 55% between 1995 and 2013 (Ogutu et al. 2016). Development in the coastal zone of Kenya is expanding rapidly and major infrastructure projects—especially the Lamu Port Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) corridor—are expected to have a major impact on the Lower Tana Valley, once implemented. Counter-insurgency operations on the Kenya-Somalia border since 2013 and the presence of heavily armed groups in south-west Somalia over a much longer period are also likely to have had a negative effect on the Coastal Topi.|
|Conservation Actions:||Coastal Topi occur mainly outside protected areas, although they were present in Boni and Dodori National Reserves (East 1999).|
Duncan, P. 2013. Damaliscus lunatus Topi/Tsessebe/Tiang/Korrigum. In: J.. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), Mammals of Africa. VI. Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer, and Bovids, pp. 502-510. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.
East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).
Ogutu, J.O., Piepho, H.P., Said, M.Y., Ojwang, G.O., Njino, L.W., Kifuga, S.C. and Wargute, P.W. 2016. Extreme wildlife declines and concurrent increase in livestock numbers: What are the causes? PLoS ONE 11(9): e0163249.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Damaliscus lunatus ssp. topi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T6243A50185875.Downloaded on 22 March 2018.|
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