Psittacara holochlorus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Psittacara holochlorus (P. L. Sclater, 1859)
Common Name(s):
English Green Parakeet
Aratinga brevipes (Lawrence, 1871)
Psittacara brevipes (Lawrence, 1871)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Psittacara holochlorus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was formerly placed in the genus Aratinga and previously split into A. holochlora and A. brevipes, following Stotz et al. (1996).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Martínez-Gómez, J., Rodríguez-Estrella, R. & Tershy, B.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Bird, J., Butchart, S., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Psittacara holochlorus is distributed from southern Texas, USA, and northern Mexico (including subspecies brevipes on Socorro Island) south through the Middle American isthmus to south-western Nicaragua, and occurs in a variety of wooded habitats (Juniper and Parr 1998). An overall decline in the population is thought to have occurred in recent decades owing to the expansion of intensive agriculture, and the species is known to be traded in small numbers locally and internationally (Juniper and Parr 1998). However, its use of modified habitats probably buffers the population to some extent against the negative impacts of the degradation and fragmentation of natural habitats.

Subspecies brevipes is endemic to Socorro in the Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico, and is regarded as highly threatened. The population was estimated at 400-500 birds within c.35 km2 of suitable habitat in 1991. Numbers were considered stable and did not decline subsequently in the early 1990s (Rodríguez-Estrella 1995, Rodríguez-Estrella et al. 1996). However, there may have been some contraction in range since c.1960. Surveys from 2006 and 2007 estimated a population of c.300 individuals, suggesting a population decline from previous population estimates (J. E. Martínez-Gómez in litt. 2007).
Countries occurrence:
El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:2290000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):2200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:200000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Subspecies brevipes is threatened mainly by erosion, habitat degradation and the inhibition of forest regeneration caused by heavy sheep-grazing, which is compounded by habitat damage caused by locust outbreaks (J. E. Martínez-Gómez in litt. 2007). The introduction of rats remains a potential threat to brevipes (B. Tershy in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
A captive-breeding programme for subspecies brevipes has been instigated for potential reintroduction (R. Rodríguez-Estrella in litt. 1999), and activities have been conducted to control sheep and cats on Socorro (J. E. Martínez-Gómez in litt. 2007, B. Tershy in litt. 1998, 1999, 2007), with nest-boxes also provided (J. E. Martínez-Gómez in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor the population of subspecies brevipes, and develop a captive-breeding programme, while completing the eradication of invasive species on Socorro and nearby Clarion Island and preventing further introductions (B. Tershy in litt. 2007).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Rodríguez-Estrella, R. 1995. Nest-site characteristics of the Socorro Green Parakeet. Condor 97: 575-577.

Rodríguez-Estrella, R., Leon de la Luz, J.L., Breceda, A., Castellanos, A., Cancino, J. and Llinas, J. 1996. Status, density and habitat relationships of the endemic terrestrial birds of Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico. Biological Conservation 76: 195-202.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Psittacara holochlorus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T62296899A95197157. . Downloaded on 21 August 2018.
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