|Scientific Name:||Charina bottae|
|Species Authority:||(Blainville, 1835)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Nussbaum and Hoyer (1974) showed that subspecies utahensis is indistiguishable from subspecies bottae, and they regarded the concept "umbratica" as meaningless; Collins (1990) apparently agreed with this view and did not recognize any subspecies. In contrast, Erwin (1974) proposed that subspecies umbratica warrants species status; this suggestion did not gain the support of other herpetologists. Stewart (1977) recognized two subspecies (bottae and umbratica) and, pending further study, regarded populations from Mt. Pinos and the Tehachapi Mountains, California, as intergrades between these two subspecies. Stebbins (1985) continued to recognize three subspecies (bottae, utahensis, and umbratica). Rodriguez-Robles et al. (2001) used mtDNA data to examine phylogeography of C. bottae and concluded that "C. b. umbratica is a genetically cohesive, allopatric taxon that is morphologically diagnosable" [using a suite of traits] and that "it is an independent evolutionary unit that should be recognized as a distinct species, Charina umbratica". The authors acknowledged that a mixture of bottae and umbratica traits exists in populations in the Tehachapi Mountains and Mount Pinos, but they interpreted this as persistent ancestral polymorphisms. They also found no support for recognizing utahensis as a valid taxon. Crother et al. (2003) listed C. umbratica as a species whereas Stebbins (2003) mentioned the proposal but did not adopt the split. In this database we maintain umbratica as a subspecies of C. bottae until a concensus on the taxonomy of this group emerges.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the wide range, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species occurs in the west of the United States and in southwestern Canada. Its range extends from southern British Columbia south to west-central California, montane southern California (San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Tehachapi Mountains, Mt. Pinos, Mt. Abel), central Nevada and southern Utah, from the Pacific coast east to north-central Wyoming and western Montana, from near sea level to about 3,050 m (10,000 feet) (Stewart 1977, Stebbins 2003). Its distribution is spotty in many areas, particularly at the southern and eastern fringes of the range. Disjunct populations in the mountains of southern California have been proposed as a distinct species, C. umbratica (Rodriguez-Robles et al. 2001).|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by many occurrences or subpopulations. For example, Stewart (1977) mapped over 200 collection sites rangewide. The total adult population size is unknown but surely exceeds 10,000 and probably exceeds 100,000. This snake is secretive, but under appropriate temperature and moisture conditions it becomes evident that it is locally quite common (Nussbaum et al. 1983, Brown et al. 1995). Overall, the extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size are probably relatively stable. The populations in southern California may be declining but few reliable data are available.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes woodlands, forest clearings, patchy chaparral, meadows, and grassy savannas, generally not far from water; also riparian zones in arid canyons and sagebrush in some areas (Nussbaum et al. 1983, Brown et al. 1995, St. John 2002, Stebbins 2003). Generally this snake is found in or under rotting logs or stumps, under rocks or in crevices, or under the bark of dead fallen trees.|
|Major Threat(s):||The species is not threatened in most of the range. The subspecies C. b. umbratica of southern California is reportedly declining due to habitat loss and degradation (resort development, smog, logging, wood gathering) (California Department of Fish and Game 1990).|
|Conservation Actions:||Many occurrences are in national and state parks and other protected areas. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.|
Brown, H.A., Bury, R.B., Darda, D.M., Diller, L.V., Peterson, C.R. and Storm, R.M. 1995. Reptiles of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington. viii + 176pp.
California Department of Fish and Game (CDF&G). 1990. 1989 annual report on the status of California's state listed threatened and endangered plants and animals. California Department of Fish and Game.
Crother, B.I., Boundy, J., Campbell, J.A., de Quieroz, K., Frost, D., Green, D.M., Highton, R., Iverson, J.B., McDiarmid, R.W., Meylan, P.A., Reeder, T.W., Seidel, M.E., Sites Jr, J.W., Tilley, S.G. and Wake, D.B. 2003. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico: update. Herpetological Review 34: 196-203.
Ernst, C.H. and Ernst, E.M. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C.
IUCN. 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12th September 2007).
Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie Jr., E.D. and Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho. 332 pp.
Rodriguez-Robles, J.A., Stewart, G.R. and Pappenfuss, T.J. 2001. Mitochondrial DNA-based phylogeography of North American rubber boas, Charina bottae (Serpentes: Boidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18: 227-237.
Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Stewart, G.R. 1977. Charina, C. bottae. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 205: 1-2.
St. John, A. 2002. Reptiles of the Northwest. Lone Pine Publishing, Renton, Washington.
|Citation:||Hammerson, G.A. 2007. Charina bottae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 January 2015.|
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