|Scientific Name:||Dimorphandra wilsonii|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,v)+2ab(ii,v); C2a(i,ii); D ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Moreira Fernandes, F.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hilton-Taylor, C. (IUCN Red List Programme) & Strahm, W. (IUCN Species Programme)|
Assessed as Critically Endangered because the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are both very small (less than 100 km² and 10 km² respectively), they are found in a single location (i.e., B1a and B2a) and there is continuing decline in number of mature individuals and hence area of occupancy (i.e., B1b (ii,v)+B2b (ii,v)) – so combined, the B criterion becomes B1ab(ii,v)+2ab(ii,v). There are less than 250 mature individuals and continuing decline of mature individuals (criterion C2), and the population structure triggers both subcriteria, i.e., C2a (i,ii). Also criterion D is met as there are less than 50 mature individuals.
|Range Description:||Found only in Minas Gerais State in southeast Brazil: Paraopeba and Caetanópolis municipalities. Occurs in a small range between the coordinates 44°25'25,7"W – 19°19'49,2"S and 44°28'23,2"W – 19°12'25,8"S.|
Native:Brazil (Minas Gerais)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There are only 10 adults (mature individuals) and six juveniles living in nature in the middle of pastures of Brachiaria, in a very deforested and fragmented region. The species was described in 1969 and was always very rare. The population is decreasing: in 1984, 18 individuals were observed in the wild (Rizzini and Matos 1986); in 2003, 11 adult individuals were observed (F. Fernandes, pers. obs.); in 2004, one adult died (unknown reason). Only 10 mature plants now remain (F.M. Fernandes, pers. obs).
After months of surveys searching for new individuals or subpopulations,
only one new mature plant was found (in August 2005). In 2005, one of the previously known individuals died (F.M. Fernandes, pers. comm).
|Habitat and Ecology:||Native to the "Cerradão", the most dense and high physiognomy (typology) of the Cerrado Biome (the Brazilian Savanna), one of the worlds Hot Spots of biodiversity.|
Threatened by deforestation for charcoal production; this is the most important threat to the Cerrado Biome. There is also deforestation for pasture establishment and any seedlings face competition from Brachiaria an alien invasive grass. This species is also deliberately erradicated by people because the seeds of the species can be harmful to pregnant cattle.
D. wilsonii contains the flavonoid 'rutina' in its fruits. Rutina is widely used to produce medicines for human circulatory diseases and is usually extracted industrially in Brazil from the related species D. mollis and D. gardneriana. D. wilsonii has good exploitation potential but was never used because of its small population size and because the species was so poorly known. Rutina from D. wilsonii does not appear to have been used by the local population. However, the wood of the species has been recorded as being used to make furniture, but this appears to be uncommon.
A project entitled "Conservation and Management of Dimophandra wilsonii" was started in 2003 by the Botanic Garden of the Fundação Zoo-Botânica de Belo Horizonte. Through this project ,extensive surveys for the species have been conducted. The project also includes monitoring in the field; studies on the biological, ecological and genetic apsects of the plant; methods of providing physical protection; and cultivation aspects. The project stimulated the City Mayors of the two municipalities and the State Government to create specific protection laws for D. wilsonii. These laws were passed in 2004.
In December 2005 and January 2006, the first reintroduction of the species was carried out: 110 individuals were planted. Another 100 plants are being grown ex situ.
The species is in the Red List of Minas Gerais State (Mendonça and Lins 2000) but not in the last Brazilian Red List, because of insufficient data. But the Minas Gerais list in now under revision and the species will most probably be listed as Critically Endangered as there is now enough information available about its conservation status.
To help the survey work started late in 2004, a leaflet and posters were produced to explain the project to the wider community and to encourage their participation, especially in reporting additional plants or helping to conserve the species. The response has been very good so far. It is hoped that sufficient funds will be raised to continue the conservation work on this species especially the ongoing surveys, monitoring and reintroduction work required.
Alves, T.H.S. 2004. Biometria de frutos e sementes e germinação de Dimorphandra mollis e Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. 55th Congresso Nacional de Botânica. Viçosa. MG. Brasil.
Heringer, E.P. and Ferreira, M.B. 1973. Árvores úteis da região geoeconômica do DF: Faveiro do Campo. O gênero Dimorphandra Schott. Cerrado 5(20): 26–31.
IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 04 May 2006.
Mendonça, M.P., Lins, l.V. (compilers). 2000. Lista vermelha das espécies ameaçadas de extinção da flora de Minas Gerais. Fundação Biodiversitas. Fundação Zoo-Botânica de Belo Horizonte. MG. Brasil. 55–63.
Rizzini, C.T. 1969. Espécies novas de árvores do Planalto Central Brasileiro. Anais Academia Brasileira de. Ciências 41(2): 239–244.
Rizzini, C.T. and Matos Filho, A. 1986. Espécies vegetais em extinção. Boletim da FBCN. 1986: 99–104.
Santos, H.L. 1977 Espécies arbóreas responsáveis por intoxicação em bovinos. I: Dimorphandra mollis Benth. E D.wilsonii Rizz. Trabalhos do XXVI Congresso Nacional de Botânica., Acad. Bras. de Ciencias, RJ, pp. 573–585.
Walter, K.S. and Gillett, H.J. (eds). 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
|Citation:||Moreira Fernandes, F. 2006. Dimorphandra wilsonii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 May 2015.|
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