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Dimorphandra wilsonii 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Fabales Leguminosae

Scientific Name: Dimorphandra wilsonii
Species Authority: Rizzini

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,v)+2ab(ii,v); C2a(i,ii); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2006
Date Assessed: 2006-01-31
Assessor(s): Moreira Fernandes, F.
Reviewer(s): Hilton-Taylor, C. (IUCN Red List Programme) & Strahm, W. (IUCN Species Programme)
Justification:
Assessed as Critically Endangered because the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are both very small (less than 100 km² and 10 km² respectively), they are found in a single location (i.e., B1a and B2a) and there is continuing decline in number of mature individuals and hence area of occupancy (i.e., B1b (ii,v)+B2b (ii,v)) – so combined, the B criterion becomes B1ab(ii,v)+2ab(ii,v). There are less than 250 mature individuals and continuing decline of mature individuals (criterion C2), and the population structure triggers both subcriteria, i.e., C2a (i,ii). Also criterion D is met as there are less than 50 mature individuals.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Found only in Minas Gerais State in southeast Brazil: Paraopeba and Caetanópolis municipalities. Occurs in a small range between the coordinates 44°25'25,7"W – 19°19'49,2"S and 44°28'23,2"W – 19°12'25,8"S.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Brazil (Minas Gerais)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are only 10 adults (mature individuals) and six juveniles living in nature in the middle of pastures of Brachiaria, in a very deforested and fragmented region. The species was described in 1969 and was always very rare. The population is decreasing: in 1984, 18 individuals were observed in the wild (Rizzini and Matos 1986); in 2003, 11 adult individuals were observed (F. Fernandes, pers. obs.); in 2004, one adult died (unknown reason). Only 10 mature plants now remain (F.M. Fernandes, pers. obs).

After months of surveys searching for new individuals or subpopulations,
only one new mature plant was found (in August 2005). In 2005, one of the previously known individuals died (F.M. Fernandes, pers. comm).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Native to the "Cerradão", the most dense and high physiognomy (typology) of the Cerrado Biome (the Brazilian Savanna), one of the worlds Hot Spots of biodiversity.
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Threatened by deforestation for charcoal production; this is the most important threat to the Cerrado Biome. There is also deforestation for pasture establishment and any seedlings face competition from Brachiaria an alien invasive grass. This species is also deliberately erradicated by people because the seeds of the species can be harmful to pregnant cattle.

Utilization
D. wilsonii contains the flavonoid 'rutina' in its fruits. Rutina is widely used to produce medicines for human circulatory diseases and is usually extracted industrially in Brazil from the related species D. mollis and D. gardneriana. D. wilsonii has good exploitation potential but was never used because of its small population size and because the species was so poorly known. Rutina from D. wilsonii does not appear to have been used by the local population. However, the wood of the species has been recorded as being used to make furniture, but this appears to be uncommon.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: A project entitled "Conservation and Management of Dimophandra wilsonii" was started in 2003 by the Botanic Garden of the Fundação Zoo-Botânica de Belo Horizonte. Through this project ,extensive surveys for the species have been conducted. The project also includes monitoring in the field; studies on the biological, ecological and genetic apsects of the plant; methods of providing physical protection; and cultivation aspects. The project stimulated the City Mayors of the two municipalities and the State Government to create specific protection laws for D. wilsonii. These laws were passed in 2004.

In December 2005 and January 2006, the first reintroduction of the species was carried out: 110 individuals were planted. Another 100 plants are being grown ex situ.

The species is in the Red List of Minas Gerais State (Mendonça and Lins 2000) but not in the last Brazilian Red List, because of insufficient data. But the Minas Gerais list in now under revision and the species will most probably be listed as Critically Endangered as there is now enough information available about its conservation status.

To help the survey work started late in 2004, a leaflet and posters were produced to explain the project to the wider community and to encourage their participation, especially in reporting additional plants or helping to conserve the species. The response has been very good so far. It is hoped that sufficient funds will be raised to continue the conservation work on this species especially the ongoing surveys, monitoring and reintroduction work required.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.2. Benign introduction
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.3. Temperature extremes
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.1. Small-holder plantations
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.2. Problematic native species/diseases -> 8.2.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

0. Root -> 100.1. OLD 1.1.1-Policy-base actions->Management plans->Development
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Alves, T.H.S. 2004. Biometria de frutos e sementes e germinação de Dimorphandra mollis e Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. 55th Congresso Nacional de Botânica. Viçosa. MG. Brasil.

Heringer, E.P. and Ferreira, M.B. 1973. Árvores úteis da região geoeconômica do DF: Faveiro do Campo. O gênero Dimorphandra Schott. Cerrado 5(20): 26–31.

IUCN. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Mendonça, M.P., Lins, l.V. (compilers). 2000. Lista vermelha das espécies ameaçadas de extinção da flora de Minas Gerais. Fundação Biodiversitas. Fundação Zoo-Botânica de Belo Horizonte. MG. Brasil. 55–63.

Rizzini, C.T. 1969. Espécies novas de árvores do Planalto Central Brasileiro. Anais Academia Brasileira de. Ciências 41(2): 239–244.

Rizzini, C.T. and Matos Filho, A. 1986. Espécies vegetais em extinção. Boletim da FBCN. 1986: 99–104.

Santos, H.L. 1977 Espécies arbóreas responsáveis por intoxicação em bovinos. I: Dimorphandra mollis Benth. E D.wilsonii Rizz. Trabalhos do XXVI Congresso Nacional de Botânica., Acad. Bras. de Ciencias, RJ, pp. 573–585.

Walter, K.S. and Gillett, H.J. (eds). 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.


Citation: Moreira Fernandes, F. 2006. Dimorphandra wilsonii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2006: e.T61926A12574230. . Downloaded on 26 September 2016.
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