|Scientific Name:||Boulengerula niedeni|
|Species Authority:||Müller, Measey, Loader & Malonza, 2005|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Contributor/s:||Gower, D.J., Meredith , H., Muller, H., Measey, J., Malonza, P. & Loader, S.|
Listed as Endangered since it has an estimated maximum extent of occurrence (EOO) of 20 km2, is restricted to two threat-defined locations, and its habitat in the Sagalla Hill is undergoing a continuing decline in quality.
|Range Description:||This species is known between 1,000-1,504 m asl (Malonza et al. 2010) on Sagala Hill, in the Taita Hills, southeastern Kenya. This mountain block is isolated from other similar habitat by the arid Tsavo plains, and so the range of this species, taken as a proxy for extent of occurrence (EOO), is believed to be restricted to the less than 20 km² within this block that are above 1,000 m asl (Malonza et al. 2010). Its range is perceived as comprising two threat-defined locations, one above and one below the eucalyptus plantation (P. Malonza and J. Measey pers. comm. May 2012).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is locally common in suitable habitats within its small range, but less abundant than Boulengerula taitana at nearby sites (P. Malonza and J. Measey pers. comm. May 2012). Its population is not considered to be severely fragmented.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs in the two known indigenous forest fragments in the area (Malonza et al. 2010) and in shambas (small-holder farms), usually in soil underneath banana plants or under decomposing organic debris. The species thus seems tolerant of small-scale farming activities. However, the density of animals is much higher near streams than in shambas away from streams, so the area of optimal habitat is very small. The species appears to be completely absent from eucalyptus plantations (which cover much of the Sagala Hill area), and is also missing from the small remaining area of natural forest on the ridge of Sagala Hill (perhaps because it is above the elevation level of this species, or because of the absence of suitable streamside habitat). As with other congeners, it is presumed to breed by direct development and therefore not be dependent on water bodies for reproduction (P. Malonza and J. Measey pers. comm. May 2012).|
|Major Threat(s):||Very little natural forest remains on Sagalla Hill, but it is not clear whether or not these caecilians might sometimes benefit from low intensity agriculture. The top of Sagalla Hill is covered by eucalyptus and pine plantations, which is contributing to ground water depletion and substantial changes to the soil, and the species has not been found under these conditions (H. Meredith and P. Malonza pers. comm. May 2012).|
Sagalla Forest is a government-managed community forest (P. Malonza pers. comm. May 2012). Currently the Kenyan Forest Service in conjunction with Taita Taveta Wildlife Forum are replacing eucalyptus in private farms with indigenous trees in the area (H. Meredith and P. Malonza pers. comm. May 2012); however, this is expected to take many years before benefits can be seen. More information is needed on this species' natural history and tolerance to threats.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 13 November 2013).
Malonza, P.K., Lötters, S. and Measey, G.J. 2010. The montane forest associated amphibian species of the Taita Hills, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 99(1): 47-63.
Müller, H., Measey, G.J., Loader, S.P. and Malonza, P.K. 2005. A new species of Boulengerula Tornier (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae) from an isolated mountain block of the Taita Hills, Kenya. Zootaxa: 37-50.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2013. Boulengerula niedeni. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 December 2013.|
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