|Scientific Name:||Centranthus trinervis|
|Species Authority:||(Viv.) Bég.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The Sardinian taxon has been renamed C. amazonum Fridl. & A. Raynal.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered D ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Buord, S. & Gigot, G.|
|Reviewer/s:||Hugot, L., de Montmollin, B. & Bilz, M.|
|Contributor/s:||Fridlender, A., Jeanmonod, D. & Peraza Zurita, M.D.|
Centranthus trinervis is a herbaceous species endemic to Corsica where only a single subpopulation with 140 individuals remains. It is protected at regional, national and international level but a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors could rapidly lead to the extinction of this species in its natural habitat. However, the population and the cliff habitat it survives on are currently stable and the species is therefore assessed as Endangered D.
Centranthus trinervis is endemic to Corsica, and is only known from a single population on the granitic boulders of Trinité near Bonifacio in the southwest of the island.
It can be found at sea level. The extent of occurrence is 140 km² and the area of occupancy is less than 10 km².
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The single locality holds 140 individuals. Habitat and population are stable. There was an extreme population fluctuation in 1994 when a fire destroyed 80% of the population but it regenerated afterwards (Montmollin and Strahm 2005).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This herbaceous species grows in the shade of rock crevices and along cliff terraces. Only the woody base of this plant persists throughout the entire year, as other above-ground parts dry up at the beginning of summer or are broken by autumn storms. The single subpopulation grows on a cliff.
After a fire, partially burned individuals may regenerate from small suckers at the base. The fruits are dispersed by wind, although regeneration has not been observed outside its present location.
It can be found in Habitats Directive listed habitat 8220 "Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation" (Commission of the European Communities 2009).
Grazing by goats is a minor threat in lower occurrences of the population and it tends to decrease. In 1994 a fire destroyed 80% of the population but it regenerated afterwards (Montmollin and Strahm 2005). On the other hand, natural fires have been reported to have positive effects on potential competitive species such as Smilax aspera.
Although C. ruber has not yet shown signs of being particularly invasive on Corsica, it could hybridize with C. trinervis in the future. A further potential threat could be human disturbance as the population is not far from already developed urban areas. Climbing was reported as a threat in the past as a "via ferrata" was installed at the cliff but this is not the case anymore.
Actions in Place
Internationally, it is included in Annexes II and IV of the Habitats Directive and in Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). This species is legally protected in La liste des espèces végétales protégées en région Corse complétant la liste nationale (Journal officiel du 15 août 1986) and listed in La liste des espèces végétales protégées sur l'ensemble du territoire français métropolitain (Annex I).
In situ: This species' habitat is included in the Natura 2000 network, it should be managed in a way that favours the conservation of this species. Climbing equipments on the cliff has been removed, population is regularly monitored. The Conservatoire du Littoral bought the area where this species is present as a way to keep the population protected.
Ex situ: Seeds of this species are preserved in several seed banks (e.g. Porquerolles), and cultivated in the botanical gardens of Brest, Porquerolles and in the Jardin Botanique de Lyon (France) and Geneva (Switzerland).
Most urgently, the unique site where this species is found needs to be managed to allow the population to increase. It is essential that the habitat be kept open by clearing competing species such as Smilax aspera, and by eliminating the cultivation of Centranthus ruber and other invasive species grown in the area. Climbing associations as well as the general public need to be made aware about the conservation status of rare plant species in the region.
More field studies and regular monitoring are needed to understand the effect of vegetation cover and density, fires and storms on this species. A replanting programme from seeds collected in situ and plants grown in botanical gardens should be launched.
Commission of the European Communities. 2009. Composite Report on the Conservation Status of Habitat Types and Species as required under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Brussels.
Corrias, B. 1978. Centranthus trinervis (Viv.) Béguinot. In Le piante endemiche della Sardegna 24-28. Bolletino della Societa Sarda di Sienze Naturali, Anno XI 20: 327-332.
Friedlander, A. 1995. Etude de quelques espèces végétales corses menacées ou inscrites à la "Directive Habitat". Rapport pour le Conservatoire du Littoral et des Rivages (CEL), Laboratoire de Biologie Végétale, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France..
Friedlander, A. 1999. Originalités biologiques et systématiques des espèces rares. Quelques exemples choisis dans la flore Tyrrhénienne. Thèse de Ph.D. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, France.
Friedlander, A. and Raynal-Roques, A. 1998. Une nouvelle espèce de Centranthus (Valerianaceae) endémique de Sardaigne. Adansonia 20: 327-332.
Gamisans, J. and Jeanmonod, D. 1993. Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Corse seconde édition. In: D. Jeanmonod and H.M. Burdet (eds), Compléments au Prodrome de la flore de Corse. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de Genève, Switzerland. 258 pp.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).
Montmollin, B. de and Strahm, W. (eds). 2005. The Top 50 Mediterranean Island Plants: Wild plants at the brink of extinction, and what is needed to save them. IUCN SSC Mediterranean Islands Plant Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Olivier, L., Galland, J.-P., Maurin, H. and Roux, J.-P. 1995. Livre Rouge de la flore menacée de France. Tome I: espèces prioritaires. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Service Patrimoine Naturel, Conservatoire Botanique National de Porquerolles, Ministère de l'Environnement, Paris.
Valentin, B., Toussaint, B. and Valet, J.M. 2010. Bilan de la conservation des taxons du tome 1 du livre rouge de la flore menacée de France. Centre régional de phytosociologie / Conservatoire botanique national de Bailleul, pour la Fédération des Conservatoires Botaniques Nationaux, Bailleul.
Walter, K.S. and Gillett, H.J. (eds). 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
|Citation:||Buord, S. & Gigot, G. 2011. Centranthus trinervis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 December 2013.|