Centaurea gymnocarpa 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Asterales Asteraceae

Scientific Name: Centaurea gymnocarpa Moris & De Not.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2006
Date Assessed: 2006-01-31
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Foggi, B.
Reviewer(s): Strahm, W. & de Montmollin, B. (Mediterranean Island Plants Red List Authority)
The population size is estimated to be less than 250 individuals. The decline in this small population is not yet significant enough to classify this species as Critically Endangered, as only one subpopulation, of 20 individuals, is under threat.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Centaurea gymnocarpa is endemic to the Italian island of Capraia, a small island which is part of the Tuscan Archipelago.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size is estimated to be less than 250 individuals. Eight subpopulations have been identified. The one threatened subpopulation is composed of less than 20 individuals, while the seven others include more then 20 individuals.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a herbaceous species that colonizes cracks and fissures of rock faces, growing on acid rocks. It is found in association with Linaria capraia and other endemic species such as Silene badaroi and Galium caprarium.

C. gymnocarpa belongs to the group known as the "cineraria" group. This group probably was once a single species when the land masses were united, but as islands were formed, new species evolved on each island. This means that today there are a number of closely related species of Centaurea in the Mediterranean growing on rocky seaward cliffs, all probably related to a common ancestor.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The subpopulation, situated between Paese and Porto, is severely threatened by competition from two invasive plants: Carpobrotus acinaciformis and Senecio angulatus. These two species in the last years have been expanding in Capraia, but do not yet grow in the other areas where C. gymnocarpa occurs, which are for the most part far away from areas of human habitation.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Actions in Place
Legally: This species is protected by the law 56/2000, which is a law guiding biodiversity conservation in the Tuscan region, and is quite similar to the EC Habitats Directive. Under this law, it is forbidden to collect any species in this genus.

In situ: Four of the eight known subpopulations occur in the Tuscan Archipelago National Park. The Park includes a protected terrestrial area of just under 18,000 ha, and a marine protected area of approximately 60,000 ha (making it the largest European marine park). The objective of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park is to protect this fragile natural environment, which is very rich in cultural and scientific values.

Ex situ: The species is cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Florence.

Actions Needed
Monitoring of all subpopulations is needed, and a programme to remove invasive alien plants which threaten one of the subpopulations needs to be undertaken. Efforts to ensure that these alien species do not start growing in the other areas where this species is found are also very important. Once the alien species have been eradicated, a re-introduction programme will be planned, using specimens propagated from the threatened population.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Senecio angulatus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Carpobrotus acinaciformis ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Aldighieri, B., Foggi, B., Groppelli, G., Morelli, E., Testa, B. and Viciani, D. 2000. Cartographia multitematica: un esempio di applicazione all'Isola di Capraia. In: Atti IV Conferenza Nazionale Informazione Geografica: innovazione e formazione. A cura della Federazione delle Associazioni Scientifiche per le Informazioni Territoriali e Ambientali, pp. 395-400.

Arrigoni, P.V., Baldini, R.M., Foggi, B. and Signorini, M.A. 2003. Analysis of the floristic diversity of the Tuscan Archipelago for conservation purposes. Bocconea 16: 245-259.

Foggi, B. and Grigioni, A. 1999. Contributo alla conoscenza della vegetazione dell'isola di Capraia (Archipelago toscano). Parlatorea 3: 5-33.

Foggi, B., Grigioni, A. and Luzzi, P. 2001. La Flora dell'Isola di Capraia (Arcipelago Toscano): aggiornamento, aspetti fitogeografici e di conservazione. Parlatorea 5: 5-53.

IUCN. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Montmollin, B. de and Strahm, W. (eds). 2005. The Top 50 Mediterranean Island Plants: Wild plants at the brink of extinction, and what is needed to save them. IUCN SSC Mediterranean Islands Plant Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Citation: Foggi, B. 2006. Centaurea gymnocarpa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2006: e.T61620A12524846. . Downloaded on 23 September 2018.
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