Montivipera bornmuelleri


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Montivipera bornmuelleri
Species Authority: (Werner, 1898)
Common Name(s):
English Lebanon Viper
Vipera bornmuelleri Werner, 1898
Taxonomic Notes: This species is included in Montivipera following Nilson et al. (1999).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2006
Date Assessed: 2006-01-31
Assessor(s): Mousa Disi, A.M., Hraoui-Bloquet, S., Sadek, R. & Werner, Y.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N. & Cox, N. (Global Reptile Assessment)
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km², its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its montane habitat through overgrazing.
1996 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has been recorded from high mountain regions in Lebanon and Syria from about 1,000 to around 2,200 m asl. It is present on the Mount Lebanon Range, the Anti-Lebanon Range and Mount Hermon (in Israeli-occupied Syria), and is also present on Jabel Al Arab (Druz), Syria.
Lebanon; Syrian Arab Republic
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It can be common in suitable habitat.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is found in cedar forests, alpine grasslands and amongst cushion-type vegetation and rocks. This species gives birth to between two and 18 young.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This is a restricted range species that is threatened in Lebanon by overgrazing of habitat by sheep and goats, and also through degradation of suitable habitat through the use of off-road vehicles. On Mount Hermon it is threatened by the development of its habitat for use by the military, and is potentially threatened by the development of the skiing industry.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is found in the protected areas of Arz Al-Shouf and Horj Ehden in Lebanon, and in the Hermon Reserve in Israeli-occupied Syria.

Bibliography [top]

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. pp. 378. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Bosch, In den, H.A.J. 1998. Prodomus einer Liste der Amphibien und Reptilien Libanons Produmus Amphibiorum et Reptiliorum Phoeniciae (Amphibia; Reptilia). Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatl. Museum f. Tierkunde Dresden 21: 9–17.

Disi, A.M. and Böhme, W. 1996. Zoogeography of the amphibians and reptiles of Syria, with additional new records. Herpetozoa 9(1/2): 63–70.

Dolev, A. and Perevolotsky, A. 2002. Red Book of Threatened Species in Israel – Vertebrates. Nature and Parks Authority and the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, Jerusalem.

Esterbauer, H. 1985. Zur Herpetofauna Südwestsyriens. Herpetofauna 7(38): 23–34

Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Hraoui-Bloquet, S., Sadek, R.A., Sindaco, R. and Venchi, A. 2002. The herpetofauna of Lebanon: new data on distribution. Zoology in the Middle East 27(2002): 35-46.

IUCN. 1990. 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 04 May 2006.

IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Joger, U. 1984. The venomous snakes of the Near and Middle East. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, A 12. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Joger, U. and Meder, M. 1997. Taxonomic Resolution of the Vipera xanthina Complex. In: Z. Rocek & S. Hart (eds) Herpetology '97, Abstracts of the Third World Congress of Herpetology 2-10 August 1997 Prague, Czech Republic. ,

Lenk, P., Joger, U. and Wink, M. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships among European ratsnakes of the genus Elaphe Fitzinger based on mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons. Amphibia-Reptilia 22(3): 329–339.

Martens, H. 1997. A review of "Zoogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Syria, with additional new records" (Herpetozoa 9 (1/2), 1996). Herpetozoa 10 (3/4): 99–106.

McDiarmid, R.W., Campbell, J.A. and Touré, T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. 511 pp. Herpetologists' League.

Mertens, R. 1967. Über Lachesis libanotica und den Status von Vipera bornmuelleri. Senckenbergiana Biol. 48(3): 153–159

Nilson, G. and Andrén, C. 1985. Systematics of the Vipera xanthina complex (Reptilia: Viperidae). 3. Taxonomic status of the Bulgar Dagh viper in south Turkey. Journal of Herpetology 19(2): 276–283

Nilson, G. and Andrén, C. 1986. The mountain vipers of the Middle East - the Vipera xanthina complex (Reptilia: Viperidae). Bonner Zoologische Monographien 20: 1–90

Nilson, G., Tuniyev, B., Andrén, C., Orlov, N., Joger, U. and Herrmann, H.W. 1999. Taxonomic position of the Vipera xanthina complex. Kaupia (Darmstadt) 8: 99–102

Sivan, N. and Werner, Y.L. 1992. Survey of the reptiles of the Golan Plateau and Mt. Hermon, Israel. Israel Journal of Zoology 37: 193–211.

Werner, Y.L. 1988. Herpetofaunal survey of Israel (1950–1985), with comments on Sinai and Jordan and on zoogeographical heterogeneity. In: Y. Yom-Tov & E. Tchernov The zoogeography of Israel. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Citation: Mousa Disi, A.M., Hraoui-Bloquet, S., Sadek, R. & Werner, Y. 2006. Montivipera bornmuelleri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 30 August 2015.
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