|Scientific Name:||Montivipera bornmuelleri|
|Species Authority:||(Werner, 1898)|
Vipera bornmuelleri Werner, 1898
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species is included in Montivipera following Nilson et al. (1999).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Mousa Disi, A.M., Hraoui-Bloquet, S., Sadek, R. & Werner, Y.|
|Reviewer(s):||Stuart, S.N. & Cox, N. (Global Reptile Assessment)|
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km², its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its montane habitat through overgrazing.
|Range Description:||This species has been recorded from high mountain regions in Lebanon and Syria from about 1,000 to around 2,200 m asl. It is present on the Mount Lebanon Range, the Anti-Lebanon Range and Mount Hermon (in Israeli-occupied Syria), and is also present on Jabel Al Arab (Druz), Syria.|
Native:Lebanon; Syrian Arab Republic
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It can be common in suitable habitat.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found in cedar forests, alpine grasslands and amongst cushion-type vegetation and rocks. This species gives birth to between two and 18 young.|
|Major Threat(s):||This is a restricted range species that is threatened in Lebanon by overgrazing of habitat by sheep and goats, and also through degradation of suitable habitat through the use of off-road vehicles. On Mount Hermon it is threatened by the development of its habitat for use by the military, and is potentially threatened by the development of the skiing industry.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is found in the protected areas of Arz Al-Shouf and Horj Ehden in Lebanon, and in the Hermon Reserve in Israeli-occupied Syria.|
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|Citation:||Mousa Disi, A.M., Hraoui-Bloquet, S., Sadek, R. & Werner, Y. 2006. Montivipera bornmuelleri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 August 2014.|