|Scientific Name:||Lamna nasus (Mediterranean subpopulation)|
|Species Authority:||(Bonnaterre, 1788)|
See Lamna nasus
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2bd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Stevens, J., Fowler, S.L., Soldo, A., McCord, M., Baum, J., Acuña, E. & Domingo, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Cavanagh, R.D., Heupel, M. & Simpfendorfer, C. (Shark Red List Authority)|
The porbeagle is a wide-ranging, coastal and oceanic shark, but with apparently little exchange between adjacent populations. Low reproductive capacity and high commercial value (in target and incidental fisheries) of mature and immature age classes makes this species highly vulnerable to over-exploitation and population depletion. This depletion, despite variations in availability of data and degree of depletion between the northern and southern hemispheres, is considered to meet Vulnerable criteria globally. The eastern and western North Atlantic populations have both been seriously over-exploited by directed longline fisheries. Collapse of the Northeast Atlantic population led to intensive target fishing in the well-documented Northwest Atlantic fishery in the 1960s, with most of the virgin biomass removed in just six years. Renewed target fishing in the 1990s led to a further population decline to ~11–17% of virgin biomass within the three generation period for this species. Recently improved management in the Northwest Atlantic should now help stocks to recover, however the Northeast Atlantic population has been subject to unrestricted fishing pressure ever since its earlier crash. Data are lacking, but stock depletion is considered to be much greater than in the Northwest Atlantic. Longline tuna and swordfish fleets in the southern hemisphere take a significant partially-utilised bycatch. Only limited trend data are available, including over 90% declines in landings by the Uruguayan longline fleet in the southwest Atlantic.
|Range Description:||The porbeagle shark is a wide-ranging coastal and oceanic species found in temperate and cold-temperate waters worldwide (1° to 18°C, 0 to 370 m), more common on continental shelves. Coastal and oceanic, amphitemperate, with centres of distribution in the North Atlantic and in a circumglobal band of temperate water of the southern Atlantic, southern Indian Ocean, southern Pacific and Antarctic Ocean (Compagno 2001). In the Southwest Atlantic Ocean it is found below 26°S (A. Domingo, pers. comm.), in the Southeastern Pacific, between 23 to 37°S (E. Acuña, pers. comm.). Tagging studies in the Northwest Atlantic have shown mainly short to moderate distances of up to 1,500 km along continental shelves (Francis et al. in press). Distances traveled by 143 porbeagle tagged in a US study ranged 4 to 1,005 nm, with a mean distance of 234 nm, with over 90% moving less than 500 nm from their original tagging location (Kohler et al. 2002). Porbeagles tagged off southern England have been recaptured off Spain, Denmark and Norway (2,370 km away), and a porbeagle tagged in Ireland travelled 4,260 km Kohler and Turner 2001), suggesting mixing throughout their range in the Northeast Atlantic (Stevens 1976, 1990). According to the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO 2001a), mature porbeagle sharks are rarely seen in winter and spring, with monthly catches exhibiting a seasonal and sex-specific migration of mature sharks towards the southern Newfoundland mating grounds in spring. The birthing grounds for the porbeagle shark in the Northwest Atlantic remain unknown (DFO 2001a). There is little known about the porbeagle shark in subequatorial Africa. No information on mating or nursery grounds is available. Porbeagles in the Northwest Atlantic make annual migrations along the coast between the Gulf of Maine and Newfoundland (Campana et al. 1999, Campana and Joyce 2004).|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Cyprus; Egypt; France; Greece; Israel; Italy; Lebanon; Libya; Malta; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Slovenia; Spain; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
North Atlantic tagging studies (DFO 1999, Kohler et al. 2002, Stevens 1990) indicate only one trans-Atlantic movement (Kohler and Turner 2001), implying that the two north Atlantic populations are distinct. There is no evidence of genetic exchange between the North Atlantic and the Southern Hemisphere population(s), which are separated by warm water. The number of sub-populations in the southern oceans is unknown.
Biomass of the Northwest Atlantic porbeagle population was estimated at 4,409 t (11% of virgin biomass) and female spawners estimated at 6,075 (10% of the virgin abundance) (Campana et al. 2001).
Populations studied in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean segregate by size and sex. Although adults are very rare in the Mediterranean, it appears to be a nursery ground.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This section is taken mainly from Stevens (in press) species assessment for Lamna nasus (in Fowler et al. in press).
The porbeagle reaches a maximum reported size of 355 cm TL (Francis et al. in press). Males mature at about 165 cm TL in the South Pacific and 195 cm TL in the North Atlantic. Females mature at about 195 cm TL in the South Pacific and 245 cm TL in the North Atlantic (Jensen et al. 2002, Francis and Duffy 2005, Francis et al. in press).
Reproduction is oophagous with litters of 1 to 5 pups (average four) produced, which are 68 to 78 cm TL at birth (Compagno 1984a, Gauld 1989, DFO 2001a, Francis and Stevens 2000, Francis et al. in press). Aasen (1963) estimated that the gestation period was about eight months in the North Atlantic and that individual females breed each year. However, Shann (1923) found two distinct size groups of embryos present in the December-February period and suggested that gestation may last 18 to 24 months. Gauld (1989) noted that a resting period may be present between parturition and fertilisation. Francis and Stevens (2000), Jensen et al. (2002) and Francis et al. (in press) estimate an 8 to 9 month gestation period. Birth occurs in spring off Europe, spring-summer off North America and winter in Australasia (Aasen 1963, Francis and Stevens 2000, Jensen et al. 2002) and the Eastern Pacific off Chile (Acuña et al. unpublished data).
Natanson et al. (2002) and Campana et al. (2002) examined age and growth in the North West Atlantic population and reported a maximum age of 26 years. However they estimated longevity might be as high as 46 years in an unfished population. Ages at 50% maturity for North Atlantic males and females are 8 and 13 years respectively (Jensen et al. 2002).
Porbeagles feed mostly on teleost fish, both pelagic and demersal species, and on cephalopods (Compagno 1984a). In the North West Atlantic, pelagic fish and squid are the main diet in deep water, and pelagic and demersal fish are important in their diet in shallow water (Joyce et al. 2002).
Like other mackerel sharks, the porbeagle is endothermic, maintaining its muscle and visceral temperatures above that of the surrounding seawater. It prefers temperatures below 18°C and has been caught in water temperatures as low as 2°C on the bottom (3°C on the surface) at high latitudes (Svetlov 1978). The preferred temperature range in the Northwest Atlantic is 5 to 10°C (Campana and Joyce 2004).
This species has virtually disappeared from Mediterranean records. In the North Tyrrhenian and Ligurian Sea Serena and Vacchi (1997) reported only 15 specimens of porbeagle during a few decades of observation. Soldo and Jardas reported only nine records of this species in the Eastern Adriatic since the end of 19th century until 2000. Recently two new records were reported (A. Soldo unpublished data). Orsi Relini and Garibaldi (2002) reported two newborn porbeagles were caught as bycatch of the swordfish longline fishery in the Western Ligurian Sea. A young porbeagle, considered to be very recently born was reported in the central Adriatic Sea (Orsi Relini and Garibaldi 2002). A young specimen was also caught in the central Adriatic during big-game fishing. On the basis of its length, it is suggested to be of an age 1–17 months (Marconi and De Maddalena 2001). These records indicate a possible nursery area in Central Mediterranean. During research of bycatch in the western Mediterranean swordfish longline fishery no porbeagles were caught (De La Serna et al. 2002). Only 15 specimens were caught during research conducted in 1998–1999 on bycatch of sharks in large pelagic fisheries: catches were reported only in the southern Adriatic and Ionian Sea, mainly by driftnets (Megalofonou et al. 2000). Official statistics for Mediterranean area show that the only landings in the Mediterranean were reported in 1996 by Malta – 1 t (FAO 2002). Porbeagles are also popular as recreational species (big game fishing) in some areas of Mediterranean.
The species is listed on Annex III, ‘Species whose exploitation is regulated’ of the Barcelona Convention Protocol concerning specially protected areas and biological diversity in the Mediterranean, signed in 1995 but not yet ratified. The Mediterranean population of this species was also added in 1997 to Appendix III of the Bern Convention (the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats) as a species whose exploitation must be regulated in order to keep its population out of danger. No management action has yet followed these listings. The draft action plan for the conservation of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyans) in the Mediterranean Sea (Anonymous 2002) has identified porbeagle as a species that urgently needs development of a management programme for sustainable fisheries.
Aasen, O. 1963. Length and growth of the porbeagle (Lamna nasus, Bonaterre) in the North West Atlantic. FiskDir. Skr. Serie Havundersokelser 13(6): 20-37.
Acuña, E., Cid, L., Pérez, E., Kong, I., Araya, M., Lamilla, J. and Peñailillo, J. 2001. Estudio biológico de tiburones (marrajo dentudo, azulejo y tiburón sardinero) en la zona norte y central de Chile. Informes Técnicos FIP, FIP/IT Nº 2000-23
Acuña, E., Villarroel, J.C. and Grau, R. 2002. Fauna Ictica Asociada a la Pesquería de Pez Espada (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus). Gayana (Concepc.) 66(2): 263–267.
Anonymous. 2002. Report of the meeting of experts for the elaboration of an Action Plan for the conservation of Mediterranean species of cartilaginous fish. UNEP, RAC/SPA, Tunis.
Anonymous. 2004. Draft proposal to include Porbeagle (Lamna nasus) in Appendix II of CITES. Submitted by the Federal Republic of Germany to the member states of the European Community. SRG 28/10/1.
Bello, G. 1999. The Chondrichthyans of the Adriatic Sea. Acta Adriatica 40(1): 65–76
Bini, G. 1967. Atlante dei pesci delle coste Italiane, vol. I. Leptocardi, Ciclostomi, Selaci. Mondo Sommerso Editrice.
Binot, M., Bless, R., Boye, P., Gruttke, H. and Pretscher, P. (eds) 1998. Rote Liste gefährdeter Tiere Deutschlands. Schriftenreihe für Landschaftspflege und Naturschutz. vol. 55. Bonn-Bad Godesberg (Bundesamt für Naturschutz).
Bonfil, R. 1994. Overview of world elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 341. FAO, Rome.
Buencuerpo, V., Rios, S. and Moron, J. 1998. Pelagic sharks associated with the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, fishery in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the Strait of Gibraltar. Fishery Bulletin 96: 667–685.
Campana, S.E. and Joyce, W.N. 2004. Temperature and depth associations of porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus) in the northwest Atlantic. Fish. Oceanogr. 13: 52–64.
Campana, S.E., Joyce, W., Marks, L., Natanson, L.J., Kohler, N.E., Jensen, C.F., Mello, J.J., Pratt Jr., H.L. and Myklevoll, S. 2002. Population dynamics of the porbeagle in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. North. Am. J. Fish. Management 22: 106–121.
Campana, S.E., Natanson, L.J. and Myklevoll, S. 2002. Bomb dating and age determination of large pelagic sharks. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59: 450–455.
Campana, S., Joyce, W. and L. Marks. 2003. Status of the Porbeagle Shark (Lamna nasus) population in the Northwest Atlantic in the context of species at risk. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat. Res. Doc. 2003/007.
Campana, S., Marks, L., Joyce, W., Hurley, P., Showell, M. and Kulka, D. 1999. An analytical assessment of the porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus) population in the northwest Atlantic. CSAS. Res Doc.99/158.
Castro, J., De La Serna, J.M., Macias, D. and Mejuto, J. 2000. Preliminary scientific estimates of by-catch landings by the Spanish surface longline fleet in 1997 and 1998. Collect. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT/Recl. Doc. Sci. CICTA/Colecc.Doc. Cient. CICAA. Vol.51, no.1, 1882-1894.
Castro, J.I., Woodley, C.M. and Brudek, R.L. 1999. A preliminary evaluation of the status of shark species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 380. FAO, Rome
Compagno, L., Dando, M. and Fowler, S.L. 2005. A field guide to the sharks of the world. Harper Collins Publishers Ltd., London.
Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop., (125) Vol. 4(1).
Compagno, L.J.V. 2001. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Vol. 2. Bullhead, mackeral and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO species catalogue for fisheries purposes. No. 1. Vol. 2. FAO, Rome.
COSEWIC. 2004. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the porbeagle shark Lamna nasus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. (Species at Risk Public Registry).
De la Serna, J.M., Valeiras, J., Ortiz, J.M. and Macias D. 2002. Large Pelagic sharks as by-catch in the Mediterranean Swordfish Longline Fishery: some biological aspects. NAFO SCR Doc.02/137 Serial No. N4759.
Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). 2001a. Porbeagle Shark in NAFO Subareas 3-6. DFO Science Stock Status Report B3-09(2001). DFO, Maritimes Region, Canada.
Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). 2001b. Canadian Atlantic Pelagic Shark Integrated Fishery Management Plan, 2000-2001.
Domingo, A. 2000. Los Elasmobranquios Pelágicos Capturados por la flota de longline Uruguaya. In: M. Rey (ed.). Consideraciones Sobre la Pesca Incidental Producida por la Actividad de la Flota Atunera Dirigida a Grandes Pelágicos. “Plan De Investigación Pesquera”. Inape – Pnud Uru/92/003.
Domingo, A., Mora, O. and Cornes, M. 2001. Evolución de las capturas de elasmobranquios pelágicos en la pesquería de atunes de Uruguay, con énfasis en los tiburones azul (prionace glauca), moro (Isurus oxyrinchus) y porbeagle (Lamna nasus). Col. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT 54(4): 1406–1420.
Ellis, J.R. and Shacklee, S.E. 1995. Notes on porbeagle sharks, Lamna nasus, from the Bristol Channel. Journal of Fish Biology 46: 368–370.
Filanti, T., Megalofonou, P., Petrosino, G. and De Metrio, G. 1986. Incidence of Selachii in longline swordfish fishery in the Gulf of Taranto. Nova Thalassia 8(3): 667–669.
Fischer, W., Bauchot, M.-L. and Schneider, M. 1987. Fiches FAO d'identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de Pêche 37. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Fleming, E.H. and Papageorgiou, P.A. 1997. Shark fisheries and trade in Europe. TRAFFIC Europe.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2003. Lamna nasus. Rome, Italy Available at: http://www.fao.org/fishery/species/2798/en.
Francis, M.P. and Duffy, C. 2005. Length at maturity in three pelagic sharks (Lamna nasus, Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca) from New Zealand. Fishery Bulletin 103: 489–500.
Francis, M.P. and Stevens, J.D. 2000. Reproduction, embryonic development and growth of the porbeagle shark, Lamna nasus, in the South-west Pacific Ocean. Fishery Bulletin 98: 41–63.
Francis, M.P., Natanson, L.J. and Campana, S.E. In press. Porbeagle (Lamna nasus). In: E.K. Pikitch, & M. Camhi (eds). Sharks of the open ocean. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Gauld, J.A. 1989. Records of porbeagles landed in Scotland, with observations on the biology, distribution and exploitation of the species. Scottish Fisheries Research Report 45, ISSN 0308 8022.
Goode, G.B. 1884. The fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States. Section 1. Natural History of Useful Aquatic Animals. Government Printing Office, Washington, USA..
Hazin, F., Broadhurst, M., Amorim, A., Arfelli, C. and Domingo, A. 2005. Catch of pelagic sharks by subsurface longline fisheries in the South Atlantic Ocean: A review of available data with emphasis on Uruguay and Brazil. In: M. Camhi and E. Pikitch (eds). Sharks of the open Ocean (In press) Blackwell Scientific, New York.
Heessen, H.J.L. (ed.). 2003. Development of Elasmobranch Assessments DELASS. European Commission DG Fish Study Contract 99/055, Final Report, January 2003
Hurley, P.C.F. 1998. A review of the fishery for pelagic sharks in Atlantic Canada. Special issue science and management of shark fisheries. In: R.E. Hueter (ed.) Proceedings of an international symposium held at the 125th annual meeting of the American Fisheries Society, Tampa, Florida, USA August 30, 1995. Fisheries Research 39: 105–228.
Hutchings, J.A. 2001. Influence of population decline, fishing, and spawner variability on the recovery of marine fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 59(A): 306–322.
IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 04 May 2006.
Jardas, I. 1996. Jadranska ihtiofauna. Školska knjiga, Zagreb.
Jensen, C.F., Natanson, L.J., Pratt, H.L., Kohler, N.E. and Campana, S.E. 2002. The reproductive biology of the porbeagle shark, Lamna nasus, in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 100: 727–738.
Joyce, W., Campana, S.E., Natanson, L.J., Kohler, N.E., Pratt, H.L. and Jensen, C.F. 2002. Analysis of stomach contents of the porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus) in the northwest Atlantic. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59: 1263–1269.
Kabasakal, H. 2002. Elasmobranch species of the Seas of Turkey. Annales, Ser. Hist. Nat. 12(1): 15–22.
Kohler, N.E., Turner, P.A., Hoey, J.J., Natanson, L.J. and Briggs, R. 2002. Tag and recapture data for three pelagic shark species, blue shark (Prionace glauca), shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), and porbeagle (Lamna nasus) in the North Atlantic Ocean. ICCAT Collective Volume of Scientific Papers SCRS/2001/064 1231–1260.
Lallemand-Lemoine, L. 1991. Analysis of the French fishery for porbeagle Lamna nasus (Bonnaterre, 1788). ICES-CM-1991/G:71.
Last, P.R. and Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia.
Macias, D. and De La Serna, J.M. 2002. By-catch composition in the Spanish Mediterranean longline fishery. In: M. Vacchi, G. La Mesa, F. Serena & B. Seret (eds) Proceedings of the 4th Elasmobranch Association Meeting, Livorno (Italy) 2000. ICRAM, ARPAT & SFI: 198
Marconi, M. and De Maddalena, A. 2001. On the capture of a young porbeagle, Lamna nasus (Bonnaterre, 1788), in the western Adriatic Sea. Annales, Ser. Hist. Nat. 11, 2(25): 179–184.
McCoy, M.A. and Ishihara, H. 1999. The Socio-economic Importance of Sharks in the U.S. Flag Areas of the Western and Central Pacific (Admininstrative Report AR-SWR-99-01), prepared for U.S. Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Region, Long Beach, California, United States.
Megalofonou, P., Damalas, D., Yannopoulos, C., De Metrio, G., Deflorio, M., De La Serna, J.M. and Macias, D. 2000. By catches and discards of sharks in the large pelagic fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea. Final report of the Project No 97/50 DG XIV/C1, Comm. Of the EU Communities.
Mejuto, J. 1985. Associated catches of sharks, Prionace glauca, Isurus oxyrinchus and Lamna nasus, with NW and N Spanish swordfish fishery in 1984. ICES C.M. 1985/H:42
Natanson, L.J., Mello, J.J. and Campana, S.E. 2002. Validated age and growth of the porbeagle shark, Lamna nasus, in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 100: 266–278.
O’Boyle, R.N., Fowler, G.M., Hurley, P.C.F., Joyce, W. and Showell, M.A. 1998. Update on the status of NAFO SA 3-6 porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus). Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat Research Document 98/41: 2–58.
Orsi Relini, L. and Garibaldi, F. 2002. Pups of Lamnid sharks from the Ligurian Sea: morphological and biometrical characteristics of taxonomic value. In: M. Vacchi, G. La Mesa, F. Serena & B. Seret (eds). Proceedings of the 4th Elasmobranch Association Meeting, Livorno (Italy) 2000. ICRAM, ARPAT & SFI: 199
Rae, B.B. 1962. Porbeagle sharks. Dept. Ag. Fish., Scot. Fish. Bull. 18: 17–18.
Rose, D.A. 1996. An overview of world trade in sharks and other cartilaginous fishes. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge
Serena, F. and Vacchi, M. 1997. Attivita di studio sui grandi pesci cartilaginei dell’alto Tirreneo e Mar Ligure nell’ambito del programma L.E.M. (Large elasmobranchs monitoring). Quad. Civ. Staz. Idrobiol. N. 22: 17–21.
SGRST. 2002. Commission of the European Communities. Report of the Subgroup on Resource Status (SGRST) of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF): Elasmobranch Fisheries. Brussels, 23-26 September 2002.
Shann, E.W. 1923. The embryonic development of the porbeagle shark, Lamna cornubica. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 161–171.
Shivji, M., Clarke, S., Pank, M., Natanson, L., Kohler, N. and Stanhope, M. 2002. Rapid molecular genetic identification of pelagic shark body-parts conservation and trade-monitoring. Conservation Biology 16(4): 1036–1047.
Soldo, A. and Jardas, I. 2002. Large sharks in the Eastern Adriatic. In: M. Vacchi, G. La Mesa, F. Serena & B. Seret (eds) Proceedings of the 4th Elasmobranch Association Meeting, Livorno (Italy) 2000. ICRAM, ARPAT & SFI: 141-155.
Sonu, S.C. 1998. Shark fisheries, trade, and market of Japan. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS.
Stevens, J. 2005. Porbeagle shark Lamna nasus. In: S.L. Fowler, R.D. Cavanagh, M. Camhi, G.H. Burgess, G. Cailliet, S.V. Fordham, C.A. Simpfendorfer J.A. Musick (eds). Sharks, rays and chimaeras: the status of the chondrichthyan fishes. IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Stevens, J.D. 1976. Preliminary results of shark tagging in the north-east Atlantic, 1972–1975. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 56: 929–937.
Stevens, J.D. 1990. Further results from a tagging study of pelagic sharks in the north-east Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 70:707–720.
Stevens, J.D. and Wayte, S.E. In press. The bycatch of pelagic sharks in Australia’s tuna longline fisheries. In: E. Pikitch & M. Camhi (eds). Sharks of the open ocean. Proceedings of the Monterey pelagic shark meeting Feb 1999. Blackwell Scientific Press, UK.
Sullivan, K.J., Mace, P.M., Smith, N.W.M., Griffiths, M.H., Todd, P.R., Livingston, M.E., Harley, S., Key, J.M. and Connell, A.M. (eds). 2005. Report from the Fishery Assessment Plenary, May 2005: stock assessments and yield estimates. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington.
Svetlov, M.F. 1978. The porbeagle, Lamna nasus, in Antarctic waters. Journal of Ichthyology 18(5): 850–851.
Tortonese, E. 1956. Leptocardia, Ciclostomata, Selachii, Fauna d’Italia. Vol. II. Ed. Calderini, Bologna.
Vacchi M., Biagi V., Pajetta R., Fiordiponti R., Serena F. and G. Notarbartolo Di Sciara. 2002. Elasmobranch catches by tuna trap of Baratti (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea) from 1898 to 1922. In: Proceedings of the 4th European Elasmobranch Association Meeting, Livorno (Italy), 2000. M. Vacchi, G. La Mesa, F. Serena and B. Séret (eds.). pp:177–183. ICRAM, ARPAT & SFI.
Vas, P. and Thorpe, T. 1998. Commercial landings of sharks in South-Western England. Shark News 12: November 1998.
|Citation:||Stevens, J., Fowler, S.L., Soldo, A., McCord, M., Baum, J., Acuña, E. & Domingo, A. 2006. Lamna nasus (Mediterranean subpopulation). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.|