Cynocephalus volans 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Dermoptera Cynocephalidae

Scientific Name: Cynocephalus volans (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Philippine Flying Lemur, Flying Lemur
Cynocephalus philippinensis Waterhouse, 1838
Lemur volans Linnaeus, 1758

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Gonzalez, J.C., Custodio, C., Carino, P. & Pamaong-Jose, R.
Reviewer(s): Chiozza, F. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
This species is listed as Least Concern as it has a presumed large population, it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category and although there has been significant deforestation the species persists in degraded habitat. Commercial logging is a threat.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Philippines, where it is only found in the Mindanao Faunal Region. It has been recorded from the following islands: Basilan, Biliran, Bohol, Dinagat, Leyte, Maripi, Mindanao (Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, South Cotabato, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur provinces), Samar, Siargao and Tongquil (Heaney . 1998; Rickart et al. 1993; Corbet and Hill 1992).
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is widespread and common and populations are stable (Heaney et al. 1998).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is common in lowland primary and secondary forest, and in mixed forest and orchard (Rabor 1986; Rickart et al. 1993; Wischusen et al. 1992, 1994; Wischusen and Richmond 1989; L. Heaney et al. unpubl. data). This species can also tolerate disturbed habitats. It feeds on leaves and some fruit.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Deforestation is a threat to this species, especially at lower elevations. Commercial logging of second growth forest is also threat. This widespread destruction of lowland forest makes them somewhat vulnerable, but their ability to persist in disturbed forest makes them a relatively resilient species. Their fur is used for making hats in Bohol (C. Custodio pers. comm. 2006). The species is persecuted in Samar because it is thought to be a bad omen (J.C. Gonzales pers. comm. 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is found in a number of protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Wearing apparel, accessories
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Corbet, G.B. and Hill, J.E. 1992. Mammals of the Indo-Malayan Region: a Systematic Review. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dollar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N.R., Lepiten, M.V., Oliver, W.L.R., Ong, P.S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr., B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1998. A synopsis of the mammalian fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 88: 1–61.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Rabor, D.S. 1986. Guide to the Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources Management Centre. Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines.

Rickart, E.A., Heaney, L.R., Heidman, P.D. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1993. The distribution and ecology of mammals on Leyte, Biliran, and Maripipi islands, Philippines. Fieldiana: Zoology 72: 1-62.

Wischusen, E. W. and Richmond, M. E. 1989. Techniques for capturing and marking Philippine flying lemurs (Cynocephalus volans). Malaysian Nature Journal 43: 100-105.

Wischusen, E. W. , Ingle, N. R. and Richmond, M. E. 1992. Observations on the reproductive biology and sexual behavior of the Philippine flying lemur (Cynocephalus volans). Malayan Nature Journal 46: 65-71.

Wischusen, E. W. , Ingle, N. R. and Richmond, M. E. 1994. Rate of digesta passage in the Philippine flying lemur (Cynocephalus volans). Journal of Comparative Physiology B 164: 173-178.

Citation: Gonzalez, J.C., Custodio, C., Carino, P. & Pamaong-Jose, R. 2008. Cynocephalus volans. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T6081A12410826. . Downloaded on 16 August 2018.
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