Calopteryx exul 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Odonata Calopterygidae

Scientific Name: Calopteryx exul
Species Authority: Selys, 1853
Common Name(s):
English Glittering Demoiselle

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-03-05
Assessor(s): Boudot, J.-P.
Reviewer(s): Samraoui, B. (Odonata Red List Authority) & Pollock, C.M. (IUCN Red List Unit)
Justification:
This species is confined to an area of about 271,000 km² (extent of occurrence) along the north Maghrebian mountains from Morocco to Tunisia. Some populations have become extinct due to stream drying, which may be due to climatic fluctuations combined with human use for agricultural purposes. In Algeria, many previously known populations are extinct due to heavy stream pollution. The species has recently been rediscovered in Algeria. The whole range is fragmented (known localities are a small area in Tunisia, a recent record in Algeria, and a larger area in Morocco: total area of occupancy (AOO) is around 25 km²). The species may be relatively mobile, but more studies are required to confirm distance travelled by individuals. Based on its restricted AOO, severe fragmentation and continuing declines it is assessed as Endangered under criterion B.

The species currently also meets the thresholds for the Vulnerable category under criteria B and C. Almost all localities exhibit only a low density and many in Morocco and Tunisia have recently declined due to stream pollution and drying during summer, in connection to agricultural practices, irrigation, water harnessing and domestic discharge. The total population is presently less than 10,000 imagoes. A minimum of 30% of the overall localities have been lost by within the last 100 years, and this will certainly continue in the future, owing to demographic expansion in the Maghreb [x2.5 in Morocco, x3.1 in Algeria and x2.3 in Tunisia from 1961 to 2003 (FAO 2004-2005)] and global climatic changes. A decline of at least 10% is expected within the next 10 years.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Calopteryx exul is a north Maghrebian endemic.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:9-25
Lower elevation limit (metres):200
Upper elevation limit (metres):1950
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:At least 32 subpopulations are known. Seven of these occur in Algeria, are based on old records, and are most probably extinct. However, new subpopulations were discovered in Algeria in 2007.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Fast-flowing mountain streams.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Water pollution, drying up of streams due to water extraction for irrigation, overgrazing and drought are major threats to the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Control of water pollution and reserve establishment through policy-based actions, increasing awareness, and research into population numbers and range, biology and ecology, habitat status, threats, and trends/monitoring would be valuable.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.8. Abstraction of ground water (unknown use)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.1. Sewage
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Dumont, H.J. 1972. Contribution à la connaissance des Odonates du Maroc. Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Phys. Maroc 52(3/4): 149–179.

Dumont, H.J. 1977. An analysis of the Odonata of Tunisia. Bull. Ann. Soc. Belge Ent. 113: 63–94.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jacquemin, G. and Boudot, J.-P. 1999. Les Libellules (Odonates) du Maroc. Société Française d'Odonatologie.

Jödicke, R., Arlt, J., Kunz, B., Lopau, W. and Seidenbusch, R. 2000. The Odonata of Tunisia. International Journal of Odonatology 3: 41–71.

Lieftinck, M.A. 1966. A survey of the Dragonfly fauna of Morocco (Odonata). Bull. Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belg. 42(35): 1–63.

Samraoui, B. and Menaï, R. 1999. A contribution to the study of Algerian Odonata. International Journal of Odonatology 2(2): 145–165.


Citation: Boudot, J.-P. 2010. Calopteryx exul. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T60287A12324105. . Downloaded on 29 September 2016.
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