Pantala flavescens 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Odonata Libellulidae

Scientific Name: Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Wandering Glider, Globe Skimmer, Globe Wanderer
French Libellule Globe Trotter, Pantale Flavescente
Libellula analis Burmeister, 1839
Libellula flavescens Fabricius, 1798
Libellula terminalis Burmeister, 1839
Libellula viridula Palisot de Beauvois, 1807
Orthetrum mathewi Singh & Baijal, 1955
Sympetrum tandicola Singh, 1955
Taxonomic Source(s): Schorr, M. and Paulson, D. 2014. World Odonata List. Tacoma, Washington, USA Available at: (Accessed: 17 February 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-11-06
Assessor(s): Boudot, J.-P., Clausnitzer, V., Samraoui, B., Suhling, F., Dijkstra, K.-D.B., Schneider, W. & Paulson, D.R.
Reviewer(s): Kipping, J. & Meziere, N.M.
Contributor(s): Marinov, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Alomari, K.
Pantala flavescens is an almost worldwide species with flourishing subpopulations on every continent but Antarctica, although rare in Europe. The population is stable and there are no known major widespread threats that would cause this species to qualify for listing in a threatened category. It is assessed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Pantala flavescens is a circumtropical species known from all continents except Antarctica. It is an obligate migrant, its migrations linked to the monsoon front, and has been recorded from all Afrotropical countries, including Madagascar and the nearby islands, apart from Burundi where it probably also occurs. Farther north, small numbers of migrants have been found in all other African countries, except Libya and Western Sahara which is most likely due to inadequate field work. Out of Africa, this species is commonly found in the Arabian Peninsula and all the Middle East and reaches southern Europe occasionally (records from Bulgaria, Montenegro, Rhodes Island, mainland Greece at the Turkish border, and European Turkey, north Caucasus area). In Asia, this species is known to occur north to central Asia, southern Siberia, Kamchatka and Japan, and south to Australia. In the Americas, it is widespread throughout the Neotropics, including the islands of the Caribbean and Galapagos, and throughout the United States and southern Canada. It is rarely recorded in the Pacific Northwest and has not been found in Labrador, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Alaska, or the more northerly Canadian territories. The northernmost records are probably vagrants. It occurs in eight provinces in Canada, 46 states in the United States of America, and 30 states in Mexico. In addition, it has been found on most Pacific islands, including the Hawaiian Islands, and probably breeds, if only as a migrant, in the great majority of localities where it has been recorded. It is the only Odonata species that occurs on the Easter Island.
Countries occurrence:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Angola (Angola, Cabinda); Argentina; Aruba; Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia); Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada (Alberta - Vagrant, Manitoba - Vagrant, New Brunswick, Newfoundland I - Vagrant, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward I., Québec); Cayman Islands; Central African Republic; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands (Cook Is.); Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland), Galápagos); El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea (Bioko, Equatorial Guinea (mainland)); Ethiopia; Fiji; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia (Jawa, Sumatera); Jamaica; Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritius (Mauritius (main island), Rodrigues); Mayotte; Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México Distrito Federal, México State, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán); Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia (Caprivi Strip, Namibia (main part)); Nauru; New Caledonia; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea (main island group)); Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Puerto Rico (Navassa I., Puerto Rico (main island)); Réunion; Rwanda; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe (Principe, Sâo Tomé); Senegal; Seychelles (Aldabra, Seychelles (main island group)); Sierra Leone; Singapore; Solomon Islands; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape Province, North-West Province, Western Cape); South Sudan; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Swaziland; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Uganda; United States (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaiian Is., Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin); Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of (Venezuela (mainland)); Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Wallis and Futuna; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Afghanistan; Algeria; Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Cape Verde; Chad; Cyprus; Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); Georgia (Abkhaziya); Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland)); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Mali; Mauritania; Montenegro; Morocco; Nepal; Niger; Oman; Pakistan; Qatar; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Central European Russia, Chita, Dagestan - Native, European Russia, Kabardino-Balkariya, Kamchatka, Kuril Is., Primoryi, Sakhalin); Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe); Turkmenistan; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Yemen (North Yemen, Socotra, South Yemen)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is abundant throughout its tropical range, the widest of any odonate.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Pantala flavescens is an obligate migrant that is linked to the monsoon front of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). It commonly uses temporary pools and ponds watered by monsoon rainfalls but may occasionally breed in permanent water. It can be seen anywhere in feeding flight over open country, attracted for breeding to ephemeral habitats such as temporary wetlands in newly filled basins, including drainage ditches. It often breeds in artificial ponds, even swimming pools or small garden ponds, and may appear at new wetlands immediately. Fishlessness is probably prerequisite for breeding habitat, as larvae inhabit vegetation but occur in open in wetlands without vegetation. It also oviposits in canals and large shallow pools of rivers in rainy season. As shiny cars are used by mistake for oviposition, large parking lots are often frequented.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not used.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no significant threats presently affecting this species. The temporary wetlands where it breeds are susceptible to drought from climate change, but as this species is migratory with great flight powers, individuals will usually be able to disperse far enough to find water.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No conservation actions are needed for this very widespread and common species.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.13. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Inland Deltas
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

Bibliography [top]

Abbott, J.C. 2005. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Texas and the South-Central United States. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Alayo D., P. 1968. Las Libelulas de Cuba. Torreia: 1-102.

Beaton, G. 2007. Dragonflies and damselflies of Georgia and the southeast. University of Georgia Press.

Borisov, S.N. and Haritonov, A. Y. 2008. The dragonflies (Odonata) of Middle Asia. Part 2. (Anisoptera). Eurasian Entomological Journal 7: 97-123.

Boudot, J.P., Kalkman, V.J., Azpilicueta Amorín, M., Bogdanović, T., Cordero Rivera, A., Degabriele, G., Dommanget, J.L., Ferreira, S., Garrigós, B., Jović, M., Kotarac, M., Lopau, W., Marinov, M., Mihoković, N., Riservato, E., Samraoui, B. and Schneider, W. 2009. Atlas of the Odonata of the Mediterranean and North Africa. Libellula Supplement 9: 256 pp.

Corbet, P.S. 1999. Dragonflies: behaviour and ecology of Odonata. Harley Book, Colchester.

Curry, J.R. 2001. Dragonflies of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis.

de Marmels, J. 1988. Odonata del Estado Tachira. Revista Científica Unet 2(1): 91-111.

de Marmels, J. 1989. Odonata or dragonflies from Cerro de la Neblina. Academia de las Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y Naturales, Caracas, Venezuela 25: 1-78.

de Marmels, J. 1992. Odonata del Cerro Guaiquinima (Edo. Bolivar) y zonas aledañas. Boletín de Entomología Venezolana 7(1): 37-47.

Dijkstra, K.-D.B. and Clausnitzer, V. 2014. The Dragonflies and Damselflies of Eastern Africa: Handbook for all Odonata from Sudan to Zimbabwe. Studies in Afrotropical Zoology 298: 1-264.

Dijkstra, K.-D.B. and Lewington, R. 2006. Field Guide to the Dragonflies of Britain and Europe. British Wildlife Publishing, Dorset.

Do Manh Cuong and Dang Thi Thanh Hoa. 2007. Checklist of dragonfly from Vietnam. Vietnam National University Publisher, Hanoi.

Dumont, H.J., Haritonov, A.Yu., Kosterin, O.E., Malikova, E.I., and Popova. O. 2005. A review of the Odonata of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Odonatologica 34: 131-153.

Dunkle, S. 2000. Dragonflies through binoculars. Oxford Univ. Press, N.Y.

Dunkle, S.W. 1989. Dragonflies of the Florida Peninsula, Bermuda and the Bahamas. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, Florida.

Esquivel, C. 2006. Libélulas de Mesoamérica y el Caribe. INBio.

Fraser, F.C. 1956. Faune de Madagascar I. Insectes Odonates Anisoptères. Publications de l´Institut de Recherche scientifique Tananarive-Tsimbazaza., Tananarive.

Glotzhober, R.C., & McShaffrey, D. 2002. The dragonflies and damselflies of Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus.

Hämäläinen, M. and Pinratana, A. 1999. Atlas of the dragonflies of Thailand. Distribution maps by provinces. Brothers of St. Gabriel in Thailand, Bangkok.

IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK Available at: (Accessed: 05 June).

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Jacquemin, G. and Boudot, J.-P. 1999. Les Libellules (Odonates) du Maroc. Société Française d'Odonatologie, Bois d'Arcy.

Jones, C.D., A. Kingsley, P. Burke & M. Holder. 2008. Field guide to the dragonflies and damselflies of Algonquin Provincial Park and the surrounding area. The Friends of Algonquin Park, Whitney, Ontario, Canada.

Kerst, C., & Gordon, S. 2011. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Oregon. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.

Kipping, J. 2006. The Odonata of Botswana - an annotated checklist. Cimbebasia Memoirs 5: In press.

Kosterin O.E. 2004. Odonata of the Daurskiy State Nature Reserve Area, Transbaikalia, Russia. Odonatologica 33: 41-71.

Longfield, C. 1947. The Odonata of South Angola. Arquivos do Museu Bocage, Lisboa 16: 1-31.

Longfield, C. 1955. The Odonata of North Angola. Part I. Publicações culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola 27: 11-64.

Longfield, C. 1959. The Odonata of North Angola. Part II. Publicações culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola 45: 15-41.

Manolis, T. 2003. Dragonflies and damselflies of California. University of California Press.

Martens, A., Jödicke, R. and Suhling, F. 2003. Annotated checklist of the Odonata of Namibia. Cimbebasia 18: 139-160.

Martiré, D. 2010. Les Libellules et Ephémères de La Réunion. Biotope (collection Parthenope) and Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Mèze.

Meurgey, F. and Picard, L. 2011. Les Libellules des Antilles françaises. Biotope (collection Parthenope) & Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Mèze.

Meurgey, F. (coord.). 2006. Les Odonates des Départements et Collectivités d'outre-mer français. Société française d'Odonatologie, Versailles.

Needham, J.G., Westfall, M.J., Jr. and May, M.L. 2014. Dragonflies of North America, Third Edition. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, Florida.

Nikula, B., Loose, J.L. and Burne, M.R. 2003. A Field Guide to the Dragonflies and Damselflies of Massachusetts. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife.

Orr, A.G. 2003. A guide to the Dragonflies of Borneo. Their identification and biology. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Paulson, D. 2009. Dragonflies and Damselflies of the West. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Paulson, D. 2011. Dragonflies and Damselflies of the East. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Paulson, D.R. 1999. Dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) of south Florida. Slater Museum of Natural History; Occasional Papers 57: 1-139.

Paulson, D.R. and Dunkle, S.W. 2009. A checklist of North American Odonata including English name, etymology, type locality, and distribution. Originally published as Occasional Paper No. 56, Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, June 1999; completely revised 2012. Available at:

Pilon, J.-G. and Lagacé, D. 1998. Les Odonates du Québec. Entomofaune du Québec (EQ) Inc., Chicoutimi.

Pinhey, E. 1961. A collection of Odonata from Dundo, Angola. With the descriptions of two new species of Gomphids. Publiçacões culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola Lisboa 56: 71-76.

Pinhey, E. 1961. Some dragonflies (Odonata) from Angola; and descriptions of three new species of the family Gomphidae. Publiçacões culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola Lisboa 56: 81-86.

Pinhey, E. 1962. A descriptive catalogue of the Odonata of the African continent. Publicações Culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola 59:11–322.

Pinhey, E. 1964. Dragonflies (Odonata) of the Angola-Congo borders of Rhodesia. Publiçacões culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola Lisboa 63: 97-129.

Pinhey, E. 1965. Odonata from Luanda and the Lucala River, Angola. Revista de Biologia, Lisboa 5: 159-164.

Pinhey, E. 1967. Odonata of Ngamiland. Arnoldia 15: 1-17.

Pinhey, E. 1975. A collection of Odonata from Angola. Arnoldia 23: 1-16.

Pinhey, E. 1976. Dragonflies (Odonata) of Botswana, with ecological notes. Occasional papers of the national Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia, Series B 5: 524-601.

Pinhey, E. 1981. Checklist of the Odonata of Mozambique. Occasional papers of the national Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia, Series B 6: 557-631.

Pinhey, E. 1984. A check-list of the Odonata of Zimbabwe and Zambia. Smithersia 3: 1-64.

Pinhey, E. 1984. A survey of the dragonflies (Odonata) of South Africa. Part 1. Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa 47: 147-188.

Pinhey, E. 1985. A survey of the dragonflies (Odonata) of South Africa. Part 2. Anisoptera. Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa 48: 1-48.

Ris, F. 1931. Odonata aus Süd-Angola. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 38: 97-112.

Rowe, R.J. 1987. The Dragonflies of New Zealand. Auckland University Press, Auckland.

Samways, M.J. 1999. Diversity and conservation status of South African dragonflies (Odonata). Odonatologica 28: 13-62.

Samways, M.J. 2002. A strategy for national red listing invertebrates based on experiences with Odonata in South Africa. African Entomology 10: 43-52.

Schmidt, E. 1961. Ergebnisse der Deutschen Afghanistan-Expedition 1956 der Landessammlung für Naturkunde Karlsruhe sowie der Expedition J. Klapperich, Bonn 1952-53 und Dr. K. Lindberg, Lund (Schweden) 1957-60. Libellen (Odonata). Beiträge zur naturkundlichen Forschung in Südwestdeutschland 19: 399-435. Plt XI.

Silsby, J. 2001. Dragonflies of the World. CSIRO Publishing.

Skvortsov, V.E. 2010. The Dragonflies of Eastern Europe and Caucasus: an illustrated guide. KMK Scientific Press Ltd (distributed out of Russia by Pensoft), Moscow.

Suhling, F. and Martens, A. 2007. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Namibia. Gamsberg Macmillan Publishers, Windhoek.

Suhling, F., Sahlén, G., Martens, A., Marais, E. and Schütte, C. 2006. Dragonfly assemblages in arid tropical environments: a case study from western Namibia. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 311-332.

Tang, H.B., Wang, L.K. and Hämäläinen, M. 2010. A Photographic Guide to the Dragonflies of Singapore. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, Singapore.

Tarboton, W. and Tarboton, M. 2002. A field guide to the dragonflies of South Africa. Tarboton and Tarboton, Nylstroom.

Tarboton, W. and Tarboton, M. 2005. A fieldguide to the damselflies of South Africa. Tarboton and Tarboton, Nylstroom.

Theischinger, G. and Hawking, J.H. 2006. The complete field guide to dragonflies of Australia. CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia.

Walker, E.M. and Corbet , P.S. 1975. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska. Vol. III: The Anisoptera—Three Families. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Wang, L-J. 2000. Dragonflies of Taiwan. Jemjem Calendar, Taipei.

Wilson, K.D.P. 2004. Field Guide to the Dragonflies of Hong Kong. Cosmos Books Ltd.

Citation: Boudot, J.-P., Clausnitzer, V., Samraoui, B., Suhling, F., Dijkstra, K.-D.B., Schneider, W. & Paulson, D.R. 2016. Pantala flavescens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T59971A65818523. . Downloaded on 26 April 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided