|Scientific Name:||Orthetrum stemmale (Burmeister, 1839)|
Libellula stemmalis Burmeister, 1839
Orthetrum kalai Longfield, 1936
Orthetrum stemmale ssp. kalai Longfield, 1936
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Schorr, M. and Paulson, D. 2015. World Odonata List. Revision 22 December 2015. Tacoma, Washington, USA Available at: http://www.pugetsound.edu/academics/academic-resources/slater-museum/biodiversity-resources/dragonflies/world-odonata-list2/.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species is seriously confused with O. brachiale.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Clausnitzer, V., Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Suhling, F.|
|Reviewer(s):||Kipping, J. & Meziere, N.M.|
This is a widespread species with no known major threats and it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened category. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Orthetrum stemmale is widespread in tropical Africa, but records need to be handled carefully as it is often confused with O. brachiale. In southern Africa, this species occurs in the humid north. It also ranges south into South Africa.|
Native:Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mozambique; Namibia (Caprivi Strip); Nigeria; Rwanda; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||No information is available on the population.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species has been recorded from pools and swamps in forest, bush and bushland.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not used.|
|Major Threat(s):||Drainage and destruction of swampy habitats caused by agriculture is a threat.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information is available on conservation actions in place but monitoring of the population trend would be valuable.|
Coulter, G.W. 1991. Lake Tanganyika and its life. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Dijkstra, K.-D.B. and Clausnitzer, V. 2005. An annotated checklist of the dragonflies (Odonata) of eastern Africa, with critical lists for Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda, new records, taxonomic notes and descriptions of new species. in prep.
IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 05 June 2006).
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Kipping, J. 2006. The Odonata of Botswana - an annotated checklist. Cimbebasia Memoirs 5: In press.
Longfield, C. 1947. The Odonata of South Angola. Arquivos do Museu Bocage, Lisboa 16: 1–31.
Longfield, C. 1955. The Odonata of North Angola. Part I. Publicações culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola 27: 11-64.
Longfield, C. 1959. The Odonata of North Angola. Part II. Publicações Culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola 45: 13–42.
Martens, A., Jödicke, R. and Suhling, F. 2003. Annotated checklist of the Odonata of Namibia. Cimbebasia 18: 139–160.
Pinhey, E. 1961. A collection of Odonata from Dundo, Angola. With the descriptions of two new species of Gomphids. Publiçaciones culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola Lisboa 56: 71-76.
Pinhey, E. 1961. Some dragonflies (Odonata) from Angola; and descriptions of three new species of the family Gomphidae. Publiçaciones culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola Lisboa 56: 81-86.
Pinhey, E. 1964. Dragonflies (Odonata) of the Angola–Congo borders of Rhodesia. Publiçaciones culturais Companhia de Diamantes de Angola Lisboa 63: 97–129.
Pinhey, E. 1965. Odonata from Luanda and the Lucala River, Angola. Revista de Biologia, Lisboa 5: 159-164.
Pinhey, E. 1967. Odonata of Ngamiland. Arnoldia 15: 1-17.
Pinhey, E. 1970. A new approach to African Orthetrum (Odonata). Occasional Papers. National Museum of Southern Rhodesia 4(30B): 221-361.
Pinhey, E. 1975. A collection of Odonata from Angola. Arnoldia 23: 1–16.
Pinhey, E. 1976. Dragonflies (Odonata) of Botswana, with ecological notes. Occasional papers of the national Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia, Series B 5: 524-601.
Pinhey, E. 1981. Checklist of the Odonata of Mozambique. Occasional papers of the national Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia, Series B 6: 557-631.
Pinhey, E. 1984. A check-list of the Odonata of Zimbabwe and Zambia. Smithersia 3: 1-64.
Pinhey, E. 1985. A survey of the dragonflies (Odonata) of South Africa. Part 2. Anisoptera. Journal of the Entomological Society of southern Africa 48: 1-48.
Ris, F. 1931. Odonata aus Süd-Angola. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 38: 97-112.
Samways, M.J. 1999. Diversity and conservation status of South African dragonflies (Odonata). Odonatologica 28: 13–62.
Samways, M.J. 2002. Red Listed Odonata Species of Africa. Odonatologica 31: 151-171.
Suhling, F., Sahlén, G., Martens, A., Marais, E. and Schütte, C. 2006. Dragonfly assemblages in arid tropical environments: a case study from western Namibia. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 311-332.
Tarboton, W. and Tarboton, M. 2002. A fieldguide to the dragonflies of South Africa. Privately published by the authors, Nylstroom.
Tarboton, W. and Tarboton, M. 2005. A fieldguide to the damselflies of South Africa. Privately published by the authors, Nylstroom.
|Citation:||Clausnitzer, V., Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & Suhling, F. 2016. Orthetrum stemmale. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T59964A85931857.Downloaded on 14 December 2017.|
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